https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/issue/feed Advances in Technology 2022-09-24T19:54:55+0530 Editor-in-Chief ait_editorialoffice@sjp.ac.lk Open Journal Systems <p>The <strong style="font-style: italic;">Advances in Technology</strong>, founded in 2021, is an international journal aims to promote emerging technological advances and innovations in Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Technology.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p><em><strong>Advances in Technology</strong> (ISSN 2773-7098) </em>is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal concerned with theoretical and experimental research pertaining to the knowledge and applications of Technology in aspects of Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Education.</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Advances in Technology </em></strong>journal welcomes articles, communications and reviews that identify and examine technology advancements. The journal focuses on research in the following main fields, but not limited to, Advanced Materials, Agriculture Technology, Automation, Automobile, Aquatic and Marine, Biotechnology, Biomedical, Building Services, Civil and Construction Technology, Computer Networks, Data Science, Deep Learning, Electrical and Electronics, Energy, Environmental Technology, Field Crop Management, Emerging Food Technology, Food Preservation Technology, Food Engineering Technology, Geotechnology, Information and Communication Technology, Industrial Bioprocessing, Mechatronics, Mechanical Technology, Multimedia Technology, Nanotechnology, Robotics, Science for Technology, Transportation, Technolgy Education, Technology Management, Polymer Technology, and Waste Management Technology. The journal provides a platform for publishing technology research papers that straddles the boundaries separating two or more disciplines.</p> <p><strong>The journal's entire review process will take 21-28 days from the initial submission to the final decision. Acceptance to proofread stage will take up to 14 days. Once accepted, the manuscript will be published in the upcoming volume. </strong></p> <p><strong><em>Advances in Technology</em> publishes three issues annually.</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: </strong>ISSN 2773-7098</p> <p> </p> https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/6046 Cement and Clay Bricks Reinforced with Coconut Fiber and Fiber Dust 2022-09-24T19:54:55+0530 Anjan Mevan Rajapakse et al. ait_editorialoffice@sjp.ac.lk 2022-09-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Editor -Advances in Technology https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5996 Artificial Intelligence for Healthcare Systems of Developing World: Opportunities and Risks 2022-08-29T15:45:38+0530 Maheshi Dissanayake maheshid@eng.pdn.ac.lk <p>Artificial Intelligence (AI) is now everywhere. It refers to systems that demonstrate intelligent behavior, such as the ability to analyze their environment to take action that is typically displayed by humans and animals.&nbsp; AI-embedded devices possess the ability to learn through example scenarios and past data presented to the system. The word AI was first introduced to the research community in 1956 at a&nbsp;conference at Dartmouth College&nbsp;in the United States [1].&nbsp; With time, the AI industry expanded from data to information, then to knowledge, and ultimately to intelligence. Due to the depth and breadth of learning capacity associated with AI technologies, today it has become one of the hottest research areas, finding applications in but not limited to computer vision, marketing, industrial automation, big data, and the Internet of things (IOT).</p> 2022-08-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Editor -Advances in Technology; Maheshi Dissanayake https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5663 E-marketing Tools for Food Businesses Amidst Covid-19 Pandemic: Advantages and Challenges 2022-05-30T09:41:09+0530 Piyumi Wanniarachchi piyumiwanniarachchi@sci.sjp.ac.lk Supun Rajakaruna niroshasupun119@gmail.com <p>Many businesses are interested in searching for the latest technologies to secure the tie with existing customers and to prevent potential customers from abandoning their businesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. The food industry is one of them. Therefore, this review article is an attempt to identify various e-marketing tools adopted in the business world in the pre-covid era and to underpin their applicability in the food industry in the covid era by highlighting the advantages and challenges of their adoption. Research articles, conference proceedings, book chapters, theses, and dissertations regarding the topic of applications of e-marketing published from 2000 to 2019 available in the google scholar database, were considered in the review. The final search of the literature was carried out in February 2020. The study reveals that the benefits of applying e-marketing tools in food businesses could compensate for the pitfalls of adopting them. Authors suggest that the ability to compare prices of similar products from different sellers as the most promising benefit of e-marketing, from the customer perspective. Similarly, the cost-effectiveness experienced by food suppliers compared to traditional marketing, makes the e-marketing concept attractive, for food businesses. This work discovers the ability and the inclination of people to launch, manage and organize business ventures with e-marketing approaches in the present as well as the future world.</p> <p> </p> 2022-08-25T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Piyumi Wanniarachchi, Supun Rajakaruna https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5500 Website Aesthetics and Technology Playfulness in Encouraging Customer Use of Online based Self-Service Technologies: Special Reference to Commercial Banks in Sri Lanka 2022-05-30T09:44:36+0530 Sandamali Galdolage sandamali@sjp.ac.lk Samudrika Rasanjalee samu.rasanjalee@gmail.com <p>Rapid technological advancements have aided the service sector's continued evolution, converting traditional physical service encounters managed by service professionals into self-service technologies (SSTs) controlled by customers. Despite the fact that prior studies have attempted to understand customers' technology acceptance in general, sufficient attention has not been paid to the study of self-service technologies, particularly Online based SSTs. Hence, the purpose of this study is to investigate the website aesthetics and technology playfulness of online-based SSTs leading the use of self-service technologies in the Sri Lankan commercial banking industry. A qualitative approach was undertaken, conducting 50 semi-structured interviews with banking customers who use SSTs in the Western Province, Sri Lanka with the use of a non-probabilistic purposeful sampling strategy. The method of thematic analysis was used to analyze the data. The findings revealed “Information quality and guidance”, “Innovative systems and facilities”, “Use of multiple languages”, “High interactivity” and “Visually appealing techniques” as the five themes of website aesthetics and “Enjoyment”, “Exciting”, “Entertaining”, “Creativity”, “Delight” and “Appealing features” as the six themes of technology playfulness leading towards the use of online-based SSTs in the banking sector. The findings would occupy the vacuum of existing literature on the customer use of online-based self-service technologies. Practitioners will be given direction with the understanding on how consumers could be encouraged towards the use of online-based SSTs with the integration of website aesthetics and technology playfulness to improve the delivery of self-service technologies in the commercial banking sector.</p> 2022-08-20T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Sandamali Galdolage, Samudrika Rasanjalee https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5661 Value Stream Analysis and Middlemen Impact of Skipjack Tuna and Smoothbelly Sardinella Dried Fish Value Chains in Sri Lanka 2022-07-05T19:49:23+0530 Shalika Laksan Wickrama shalikalaksan@gmail.com Dilanthi Koralagama dilanthi@agecon.ruh.ac.lk Sandika Abeysinghe sandika@agecon.ruh.ac.lk <p>Value-added activities, chain structures, and middlemen impact are incomprehensible in the dried fish economy. Processors have a significant impact at the initial stage of the value chain, but little control over value chain management; however vastly monopolized by intermediaries. Yet, the processors receive poor returns compared to other actors in the value chain. Value stream analysis visualizes the value additions incorporated by all the actors and agents in the value chain. Despite the literature states of different returns along the value chain, a comprehensive mapping is needed to assess the contribution by actors and agents over Value Added (VA), Necessary Value Added (NVA) and Non-Necessary Value Added activities (NNVA). This will enable fair and efficient functions in the value chain. The same scenario is common in dried fish value chains in Sri Lanka which is inadequately researched. This study aims to conduct a value stream analysis, middlemen impact assessment, and their relationship for skipjack tuna and smoothbelly sardinella dried fish value chains representing the highest per-capita consumption dried fish varieties in Sri Lanka. Hambantota, Matara, Puttalam, and Gampaha were selected to conduct the study representing the highest dried fish production districts. A quantitative data collection method was adopted employing a pre-tested structured questionnaire. A simple random sampling technique was used to draw the sample from processors, wholesalers and retailers where the sample sizes were 100, ,40, and 40 respectively. Secondary data were collected from reputed published materials. Data were analyzed mainly using descriptive techniques. The number of VA, NV,A and NNVA activities are approximately decreased through the skipjack tuna value chain as processor (VA-10, NVA-01, NNVA-02), wholesaler (VA-2, NVA-1, NNVA-4) and retailer (VA-02, NVA-01, NNVA-01) and for smoothbelly sardinella processor (VA-08, NVA-01, NNVA-02), wholesaler (VA-02, NVA-01, NNVA-02) and retailer (VA-01, NVA-01, NNVA-02) levels. Time spent for each activity is decreased through value chain for both dried fish varieties. The market margins for skipjack tuna and smoothbelly sardinella are 46.64% and 38.19% respectively. Profit margins are increased along the value chain at the processor, wholesaler and retailer levels for skipjack tuna (9.63%, 15.25%, 27.22%) and smoothbelly sardinella (12.53%, 14.23%, 20.98%) respectively. In contrast, profit gain was not fairly distributed along the value chain proportionately contribution to activities and times spent by actors. This recommended an effective mechanism for fair profit sharing for dried fish actors based on their contribution to value addition and time spent on each activity.</p> 2022-08-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Shalika Laksan Wickrama, Dilanthi Koralagama, Sandika Abeysinghe https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5598 Antibacterial and Antiviral Properties of Coriandrum Sativum and Zingiber Officinale against Human Respiratory Tract Related Bacterial and Viral Infections: A Review with a Focus on the Case of SARS-CoV 2022-05-23T19:42:14+0530 Buddhi Kodikara buddhikaumadi97@gmail.com Dr Lanka Undugoda lankaundugoda@sjp.ac.lk Himashi Karunarathne himashi@iti.lk Ravi Kandisa vittubiotech@gmail.com <p>Phytochemical constituents in extracts from medicinal plants have been widely used since ancient times to treat microbial infections. <em>Coriandrum sativum </em>and <em>Zingiber officinale</em> are two of the main popular ingredients in traditional medicine recipes. Currently, these extracts are used to prevent Covid-19 infections. Therefore, this review describes the antimicrobial properties of coriander and ginger and how far it is suitable to use against bacterial and viral infections occurring in the human respiratory tract. For instance, the main phytochemical available in <em>C. sativum</em> is linalool, followed by terpinene, pinene, cymene, decenal, and camphor. Gingerol is the main constituent in <em>Z. officinale</em> followed by shogaols and paradols. Moreover, many research findings revealed that the extract from coriander and ginger can be used to control respiratory tract infected pathogens due to the antiviral and antibacterial properties of available phytochemicals. Therefore, it is very effective to use coriander and ginger to boost the immune system. Furthermore, scientific evidence has proved the effective antiviral properties of compounds present in coriander and ginger that have binding affinity to the proteins in the virus, blocking the virus's receptors and boosting the immunity to face the COVID-19 situation. In fact, the effectiveness of the antimicrobial activity of mixed extract of medicinal plant parts is better than that of individuals. Therefore, this will review the therapeutic characteristics of coriander and ginger extracts due to their various phytochemical activities. </p> 2022-09-24T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Buddhi Kodikara, Dr Lanka Undugoda, Himashi Karunarathne, Ravi Kandisa https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5584 A Novel Method for Moving Laterally and Discovering Malicious Lateral Movements in Windows Operating Systems: A Case Study 2022-04-20T18:44:31+0530 Akalanka Mailewa amailewa@stcloudstate.edu Kyle Rozendaal kyle.rozendaal@protonmail.ch <p>Lateral movement is a pervasive threat because modern networked systems that provide access to multiple users are far more efficient than their non-networked counterparts. It is a well-known attack methodology with extensive research conducted investigating the prevention of lateral movement in enterprise systems. However, attackers use increasingly sophisticated methods to move laterally that bypass typical detection systems. This research comprehensively reviews the problems in lateral movement detection and outlines common defenses to protect modern systems from lateral movement attacks. A literature review outlines techniques for automatic detection of malicious lateral movement, explaining common attack methods utilized by advanced persistent threats and components built into the Windows operating system that can assist with discovering malicious lateral movement. Finally, a novel approach for moving laterally designed by other security researchers is reviewed and studied, an original process for detecting this method of lateral movement is proposed, and the application of the detection methodology is also expanded.</p> 2022-08-25T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Akalanka Mailewa, Kyle Rozendaal https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5545 Deep Residual Learning-Based Convolutional Variational Autoencoder For Driver Fatigue Classification 2022-03-25T19:44:29+0530 Sameera Adhikari sameerabadhikari@gmail.com Senaka Amarakeerthi senaka@sjp.ac.lk <p>Driving under the influence of fatigue often results in uncontrollable vehicle dynamics, which causes severe and fatal accidents. Therefore, early warning on the fatigue onset is crucial to avoid occurrences of such kind of a disaster. In this paper, the authors have investigated a novel semi-supervised convolutional variational autoencoder-based classification approach to classify the state of the driver. A convolutional variational autoencoder is a generative network. The authors have proposed a discriminative model using convolutional variational autoencoders and residual learning. This approach calculates an intermediate loss base on deep features of the network in addition to the label information in training. The loss obtained by this method helps the training to be more effective on the model and leads to better accuracy in driver fatigue classification. The trained model has managed to classify driver fatigue with higher accuracy (97%) than the other successful models taken into comparison, proving that the proposed method is more practical for computing classification loss for driver fatigue to currently available methods.</p> 2022-08-25T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Sameera Adhikari, Senaka Amarakeerthi https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5534 Cement and Clay Bricks Reinforced with Coconut Fiber and Fiber Dust 2022-04-20T18:24:37+0530 Anjan Mevan Rajapakse anjanmevanrajapakse@gmail.com Dulini Yasara Mudunkotuwa dulini@sjp.ac.lk Sanura Naveen Sanjula sanuranaveen@gmail.com Kelum Nishantha kelum.nrl@gmail.com Tharaka Ruwan Bandara tharaka.bandara@sjp.ac.lk <p>For generations, Sri Lankans use cement bricks and clay bricks as common building materials in the construction field. This study investigates the feasibility of improving the strength while lowering the mass and thermal conductivity of bricks by adding coconut fiber or coconut fiber dust as a reinforcing material. Each reinforcing material is used in both clay and cement bricks. The mixtures are prepared according to varying volume ratios of the raw materials used. Coconut fibers are combed and cut into 4-5 cm pieces and dry coconut fiber dust is sieved using a 4 mm sieving mesh. The mixture is prepared by hand mixing and the traditional processes are replicated in making the bricks. Tests are carried out to understand the variation of mass, compressive strength, thermal conductivity, and water absorption of the reinforced bricks in comparison to bricks with no reinforced material. The cement brick reinforced with coconut fiber achieves the expected results in the compressive strength test and thermal conductivity test but underperformed when comparing masses and water absorption. Clay bricks reinforced with coconut fiber dust show impressive results in compressive tests and with the addition of dust, the appearance seems to have changed. It is observed that reinforcing cement bricks with coconut fiber could double the compressive strength along with a 5% reduction in mass. Reinforcing clay bricks with coconut fiber dust increases its compressive strength by over 70% while decreasing the mass by over 30 %. The study proves that it is feasible to use reinforced coconut fiber or coconut fiber dust to improve the properties of both clay and cement bricks, while clay bricks reinforced with coconut fiber are an exception.</p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Anjan Mevan Rajapakse, Dulini Yasara Mudunkotuwa, Sanura Naveen Sanjula, Kelum Nishantha, Tharaka Ruwan Bandara https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5529 Suitability of Reusing the Spent Diatomaceous Earth in Brick Production: A Review 2022-03-26T00:16:18+0530 Rumesh Nanayakkara a.g.rumeshnanayakkara@gmail.com Chamila Gunathilake chamila@wyb.ac.lk Rohan Dassanayake rdassanayake@sjp.ac.lk <p>Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used as a filter material in the brewery industry. Spent Diatomaceous Earth (SDE) is an industrial waste generated after filling DE pores with impurities from brewing industries during filtration. After the final filtering process, this SDE is disposed into dumping areas, causing numerous environmental concerns. SDE has been recently reported as a substitute for clay in brick production. Incorporating SDE with clay in brick production can reduce the amount of clay added to the brick and the SDE waste discharged into the environment. However, only limited literature is available on SDE utilization in brick production. This paper reviews the recent research on reusing SDE in brick production. Moreover, the manufacturing process of bricks, including essential chemical reactions accompanying the firing of brick, properties of SDE and clay, factors maintained in brick, and affecting the quality of brick, have also been discussed in this review.</p> 2022-05-25T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Rohan Dassanayake, Chamila Gunathilake, Rumesh Nanayakkara https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5526 Analyzing Data Encryption Efficiencies for Secure Cloud Storages: A Case Study of Pcloud vs OneDrive vs Dropbox 2022-04-22T22:20:05+0530 Steven Gamnis sgamnis@go.stcloudstate.edu Matthew VanderLinden mvanderLinden@go.stcloudstate.edu Akalanka Mailewa amailewa@stcloudstate.edu <p>Now more than ever has it become important to keep the information confidential in an age that is losing its value of individual privacy. In this cloud computing era, regardless of the power of the cloud computing concept, many people do not know that their information can be used and sent to third parties from their cloud storage provider. Today the use of cloud storage is well established however the security of protecting the data on the cloud is a limited thought for most users. Therefore, this study aims to experimentally research which encryption program works best when storing data onto three of the main cloud storage providers currently available on the market. This study will go over the hardware and network impact as well as the time to encrypt and decrypt the data. This study will determine if “7zip” or “rclone” encryption programs work best with these three cloud storage. The data will be collected using NetData tool and accordingly determine which encryption application works best with which cloud storage provider. Thereafter, based on the data analysis, it is recommended that experimental outcomes to all users to keep their sensitive data secured and safe from snooping or prevent private information from being collected and sold to third parties with the help of black market.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Steven Gamnis, Matthew VanderLinden, Akalanka Mailewa https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5521 Design and Simulation of a Novel Magnetic Microactuator for Microrobots in Lab-On-a-Chip Applications 2022-02-21T21:30:48+0530 Nisal Minula Perera Kankanige nisalmper@gmail.com Gihan Charith Premachandra Hanchapola Appuhamilage charithp@uom.lk Shanuka Kamesh Dodampegama shanukakamesh@gmail.com Ranjith Amarasinghe Yattowita Withanage ranama@uom.lk <p>This article presents the design of a magnetic microactuator comprising soft magnetic material blocks and flexible beams. The modular layout of the proposed microactuator promotes scalability towards different microrobotic applications using low magnetic fields. The presented microactuator consists of three soft magnetic material (Ni-Fe 4750) blocks connected together via two Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) semi-circular beams. A detailed design approach is highlighted giving considerations toward compactness, range of motion and force characteristics of the actuator. The actuator displacement and force characteristics are approximately linear in the magnetic field strength range of 80-160 kA/m. It can achieve maximum displacements of 111.6 µm (at 160 kA/m) during extension and 10.7 µm (at 80 kA/m) during contraction under no-load condition. The maximum force output of the microactuator, computed through a contact simulation, was 404.3 nN at a magnetic field strength of 160 kA/m. The microactuator achieved stroke angles up to 18.4 in a study where the microactuator was integrated with a swimming microrobot executing rowing motion using an artificial appendage, providing insight into the capabilities of actuating untethered microrobots.</p> 2022-05-31T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Nisal Minula Perera Kankanige, Gihan Charith Premachandra Hanchapola Appuhamilage, Shanuka Kamesh Dodampegama, Ranjith Amarasinghe Yattowita Withanage https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5501 Study on Time Overrun related to Construction Projects in Sri Lanka 2022-02-18T21:19:51+0530 Yathupriyan Arulvel yathupriyan@gmail.com Sankha Widisinghe sankha@sjp.ac.lk <p>The time overrun in construction projects is a common issue around the world and no exception in Sri Lankan construction industry. The aims are to identify the causes and their significance to the project time overrun as well as to provide suggestions for those identified causes. Totally 39 significant factors were identified as relevant to Sri Lankan construction industry through a literature survey. Then a quantitative questionnaire approach was conducted to identify the significance of factors from industry professionals (civil engineers, quantity surveyors, technical officers, supervisors &amp; directors, and the persons with minimum qualification and experience in the construction industry) working as stakeholders such as clients, consultants, and contractors without considering the project type. The previously identified 39 factors were found to be applicable to the Sri Lankan construction industry with survey results. Through the survey, 33 responses were collected and analyzed based on the relative important index of the results. Highly weighted 15 project time overrun factors were analyzed in detail. Mainly, three factors of time overrun in construction projects were identified by ranking based on overall responses; i) contractor’s improper planning, ii) mistakes during construction by contractors, and iii) delay in preparation and approval of drawings. At the same time, social and cultural factors and disputes with surroundings or neighbours got the least significance based on ranking. The relationship between the significance of factors and relevance to the construction party (contractor, consultant) is also identified in this study. From questionnaire responses, the political influence, material theft, labor attitudes and motivation, and unexpected material cost increase than the total budget was selected for the further discussion. Finally, recommendations are provided for future development projects such as the contractor’s proper planning. As well as experienced and well knowledge professional to be appointed as a project manager by contracting firm.</p> 2022-05-15T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Yathupriyan Arulvel, Sankha Widisinghe https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5514 Effectiveness of Rapid Transition to Online Learning During the Covid-19 Pandemic 2022-05-07T18:58:39+0530 Thusyanthini Ramanathan rthusi07@gmail.com Sriyantha Swarna Malitha Peramunagama swarnamalitha@gmail.com <p>COVID-19 is prevalent in almost every corner of the globe, meanwhile Sri Lanka is also experiencing it. Higher education providers of the department of agriculture (extension and training division) had to rapidly transition their teaching programs to online learning and assessment. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of online learning during the COVID-19 period. Accordingly, students from four different schools of agriculture (Paranthan, Palamuna, Vavuniya, and Palwehera) were purposively selected (n=210). Google form was used to collect data. The results revealed that 53.3% preferred a combination learning system of both traditional learning and online learning. Advantages of online learning were the ability of recording lectures as video (51.7%) and learn in a comfortable place (42.1%). With regards to the obstacles to online learning during the COVID-19 technical problems significantly (91.9%) affected learning while reduced interaction with their teachers/instructors (43.8%) and poor learning environment at home (39%) also were considerable barriers. There was a statistical difference (p&lt;0.05) between face-to-face and online learning in terms increase knowledge, practical skills, social competencies, and assessment methods. However, successful implementation of online learning into the curriculum requires a well-thought-out strategy and a more active approach.</p> 2022-05-26T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Thusyanthini Ramanathan, Sriyantha Swarna Malitha Peramunagama https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5498 Social and Situational Influences on Customer Shift Towards Self-Service Technologies 2022-03-14T23:37:36+0530 Sandamali Galdolage sandamali@sjp.ac.lk <p>In recent years, significant developments have occurred in the service sector, most notably the introduction of technological interfaces to customer care interactions. Even though businesses invested heavily in Self-Service Technologies (SSTs) in the hope of maximizing their benefits, customers have not adopted the technology in the manner anticipated. Among many reasons behind customer movement towards SSTs, this study investigates the social and situational influences which have received little attention in scholarly work. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative methodology is used, with 25 semi-structured interviews performed with SST users who were chosen using a purposive sampling method, and the responses were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. The study identified the influences of numerous social groups and classified them into three categories: personal sources, organizational sources, and the society at large. Eight situational factors were found as influencing to use SSTs: travel limitations, crowding, urgency, number/volume of transactions, nature of transactions, task complexity, payment mode, group/alone behaviors. This understanding fills the gap in the literature while providing insights to SST service providers that are needed to promote SST use and handle various conditions in which their customers' SST usage may fluctuate from situation to situation.</p> 2022-05-03T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Sandamali Galdolage https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5493 A Contribution of IT to Implementation of Digital Learning in State Universities of Sri Lanka during the Covid-19 Pandemic 2022-03-25T23:47:13+0530 Pirunthavi Sivakumar psivakum@tec.rjt.ac.lk Kularasasingam Wijikumar kwiji@ou.ac.lk <p>This study aims to identify the impact of digital learning in Sri Lankan state universities and the contribution of ICT to the implementation of digital learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study also aims to investigate the impact of digital learning conducted in academic activities while the Covid-19 pandemic; its implementation in state universities in Sri Lanka and the challenges encountered by the academic staff members and students. The purpose of this study is to identify the positive and negative effects of virtual mode studies and their adaptations. In addition, this study will help to identify future digital learning opportunities at Sri Lankan state universities. Data collection was conducted through an interview guide and implemented with some research-related open-ended questions and thematically analyzed the data, and interviews were conducted to carry out research work at eight Sri Lankan state universities. The methodology of this study was qualitative, and the sample of this study was purposive. The findings of this study developed three main themes; implementation of virtual learning; blended learning and distance evaluation; and adaption to rapid changes. Based on the results, academic recommendations are considered when making recommendations for future studies.</p> 2022-05-07T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Pirunthavi Sivakumar, K. Wijikumar https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5477 Diagnosing Mathematics Ability of Technology Students: Misconceptions in Algebra 2022-02-06T19:12:12+0530 Rovini Rathnayake rovininr@gmail.com Gaya N Jayakody gayanayomi@sjp.ac.lk <p>Catering to a long-standing need in the country, the technology stream was introduced to the G.C.E. (A/L) in Sri Lanka in 2015 with one compulsory subject Science for Technology formed by combining six Science subjects including Mathematics. There is no argument that a sound Mathematics background is essential to produce a good technology graduate. Not only do technologists need Mathematics knowledge in technological applications, but also the logical, analytical, and critical thinking developed through the learning of mathematics is essential for them in solving problems. Hence, technology faculties around the country observe that the command in mathematics of their new entrants needs improvement. As a diagnosis and to uplift their mathematics achievement, this study aims to explore one aspect of their mathematics knowledge: common mistakes and misconceptions. This paper reports on the extent to which algebraic mistakes are made by students entering Technology Faculties. The data for this study comes from a three-week online intensive mathematics course that students follow, prior to commencing their degree program. Students ask to respond to ten questions designed to capture errors in algebraic manipulations. The analysis of data shows a lack of understanding of the intricacies of division by zero consequently resulting in cancellation errors, erroneous manipulations of algebraic expressions, and improper use of parenthesis and priority of exponents in the order of operations. Another mistake is extending the distributive property of multiplication over addition erroneously to distributing multiplication over multiplication. More importantly, the data reveals a training these students have received in school that is mathematically less precise and therefore highlights the need to make students unlearn these erroneous habits that is ingrained in them for many years. Further, these results urge instructors to incorporate purposeful remedial actions into their early mathematics courses to better prepare them for their future technology.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Full paper submission of ICIET 2021</em></p> 2022-05-01T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Rovini Rathnayake, Gaya N Jayakody https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5475 Diagnosing Localized and Distributed Bearing Faults by Bearing Noise Signal Using Machine Learning and Kurstogram 2022-03-03T21:41:25+0530 Kanagasundram Jathursajan kanaga.jathu@gmail.com Akila Wijethunge akilawijethunge@sjp.ac.lk <p>Bearings are a common component and crucial to most rotating machinery. Their failures are the causes for more than half of the total machine failures, each with the potential to cause extreme damage, injury, and downtime. Therefore, fault detection through condition monitoring has a significant importance. Since the initial cost of standard condition monitoring techniques such as vibration signature analysis is high and has a long payback period, the condition monitoring via audio signal processing is proposed for both localized faults and distributed/ generalized roughness faults in the rolling bearing. It is not appropriate to analyze bearing faults using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the noise signal of bearing since localized faults are Amplitude Modulated (AM) and mixed up with background noises. Localized faults are processed using Kurstogram technique for finding the appropriate filtering band because localized faulty bearings produce impulsive signals</p> 2022-05-23T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Kanagasundram Jathursajan, Akila Wijethunge https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5463 Online Education: An “opportunity” for a positive change in the teaching learning process 2022-01-20T16:51:56+0530 Gaya Jayakody, PhD gayanayomi@sjp.ac.lk <p>Online Education: An “opportunity” for a positive change</p> <p>in the teaching learning process</p> 2021-12-31T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2021 Gaya Jayakody, PhD https://journals.sjp.ac.lk/index.php/ait/article/view/5461 A Novel Machine Learning based Autonomous Farming Robot for Small-Scale Chili Plantations 2022-03-28T18:01:10+0530 Kasun Thushara kasunthushara16855@gmail.com Fazlun Rifaza Noordeen smartfarmingrobot@gmail.com Kaveesha N. Ranasinghe kaveesha.nimnadi.1@gmail.com Chamitha D. Alwis chamitha@sjp.ac.lk Madushanka N. Dharmaweera nishanmd@sjp.ac.lk Bhathiya M. Pilanawithana bpilanawithana@sjp.ac.lk <p>The agricultural sector is a major economic force in Sri Lanka, which contributes to the national economy, food security, and employment. The traditional methods practiced by farmers mainly drove the growth of the agriculture sector over the last 2500 years. However, these traditional methods have often been ineffective against pest attacks in recent years causing significant losses to farmers and threatening food security. To counter these issues, officials and researchers have started formulating novel technology-based smart solutions. This study proposes a smart, autonomous mobile robot that can help detect pests and diseases in advance and assist in crop estimation of chili plants. The model is created as such for pest and plant disease detection in small-scale chili plantations with the hope of using it in other crop types for the same purpose in the future. Thus, the proposed approach together with the developed model can be used to enhance the growth of other plants as well. Identification of the type of garden and the detection of pests and plant diseases are achieved using machine learning techniques while the identification of nutrient deficiencies is achieved using image processing techniques. This proposed mobile robot incorporates sensory inputs, machine learning, robotics, and image processing. Furthermore, a mobile application acts as the interface between the user and the robot.</p> 2022-08-29T00:00:00+0530 Copyright (c) 2022 Kasun Thushara, Fazlun Rifaza Noordeen, Kaveesha N. Ranasinghe, Chamitha D. Alwis, Madushanka N. Dharmaweera, Bhathiya M. Pilanawithana