Advances in Technology <p>The Advances in Technology, founded in 2021, is an international journal aims to promote emerging technological advances and innovations in Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Technology.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p><em>Advances in Technology (ISSN 2773-7098)</em> is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal concerned with theoretical and experimental research pertaining to the knowledge and applications of Technology in aspects of Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Education.</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong></p> <p><em>Advances in Technology</em> journal welcomes articles, communications and reviews that identify and examine technology advancements. The journal focuses on research in the following main fields, but not limited to, Advanced Materials, Agriculture Technology, Automation, Automobile, Aquatic and Marine, Biotechnology, Biomedical, Building Services, Civil and Construction Technology, Computer Networks, Data Science, Deep Learning, Electrical and Electronics, Energy, Environmental Technology, Field Crop Management, Emerging Food Technology, Food Preservation Technology, Food Engineering Technology, Geotechnology, Information and Communication Technology, Industrial Bioprocessing, Mechatronics, Mechanical Technology, Multimedia Technology, Nanotechnology, Robotics, Science for Technology, Transportation, Polymer Technology, and Waste Management Technology. The journal provides a platform for publishing technology research papers that straddles the boundaries separating two or more disciplines.</p> <p><strong>The journal's entire review process will take 21-28 days from the initial submission to the final decision. Acceptance to proofread stage will take up to 14 days. Once accepted, the manuscript will be published in the upcoming volume. </strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: </strong>ISSN 2773-7098</p> <p><img src="" alt="" height="100" /></p> Faculty of Technolgy, University of Sri Jayewardenepura, Sri Lanka en-US Advances in Technology 2773-7098 <p dir="ltr"><span>The Authors hold the copyright of their manuscripts, and all articles are circulated under the terms of the </span><span>Creative Commons Attribution License</span><span>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as that the original work is properly cited.</span></p><p dir="ltr"><span>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The authors are responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</span></p><div><span><br /></span></div> Development of PP/r-PET Low-speed Wheels: An Approach to Value Added Recycling of PET along with Minimizing Virgin Plastic Usage in the Industry <p>The increase of plastic usage in different applications has a huge impact on the environment due waste generation. This study was focused not only to find a way to reduce the virgin plastic usage but also to convert a commodity plastic waste into a commercial engineering product. Post consumed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles were used as a source of recycled PET (r-PET) and blended with commercial grade polypropylene (PP) to produce the center part of low speed wheels. Thermomechanical properties of PP/r-PET blends were investigated along with the effect of compatibilization. The quality of prepared wheels was examined with dynamic drum test and impact test. The addition of recycled PET into polypropylene enhanced the properties of blends and it also supported to maintain the fatigue life of the wheel.</p> Suranga M. Rajapaksha Sachini Subhashini Sisira Ranatunga Shiran Perera Sameera Herath Chamodi P. Piyarathna Copyright (c) 2021 Suranga M. Rajapaksha, Sachini Subhashini, Sisira Ranatunga, Shiran Perera, Sameera Herath, Chamodi P. Piyarathna 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Potential Genetic Polymorphisms Predicting Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Sri Lankan Women: Comparison with Different Ethnicity <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder of young women with long-term metabolic risk and prevalence among pre-marital Sri Lankan women is 6.3%. Inheritance of PCOS is likely to be oilgogenic; the genetic basis remaining largely unknown in view of the complex pathophysiology. The genetics of expression of PCOS requires an in-depth study, particularly among Sri Lankan women who have a greater metabolic risk from an early age.</p> <p>The emergence of an unanimously accepted genetic marker for susceptible PCOS was affected based on inconsistent findings. In this review, we summarize the common genetic polymorphisms of PCOS from different countries and outline some genetic polymorphisms that are potentially associated with the risk of PCOS in Sri Lankan women. This information could uncover candidate genes associating with PCOS, which will be valuable for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment method.</p> Umayal Branavan Sulochana Wijesundera Visvanath Chandrasekharan Chandrika Wijeyaratne Copyright (c) 2021 Umayal Branavan, Sulochana Wijesundera , Visvanath Chandrasekharan, Chandrika Wijeyaratne 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Evolution of COVID-19 Disease Using a One Prey-Two Predator Model <p>Mathematical modeling is used to understand the dynamics of transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19, SARS, Ebola, and Dengue among populations. In this work, a one prey-two predator model has been developed to understand the underlying dynamics of COVID-19 disease transmission. We considered the infected, recovered, and death populations with the fact that an infected person can be transformed into the recovered or death group assuming that the infected ones are the prey, and the other two populations are the two predators in the one prey-two predator model. It was found that the proposed model has four equilibrium points; the vanishing equilibrium point ( ), recovered and death-free equilibrium point ( ), recovered population-free equilibrium point ( ), and the death-free equilibrium point ( ). Stability analysis of the equilibrium points shows that except all the other equilibrium points are locally asymptotically stable. Global asymptotic stability of the recovered population-free equilibrium point and death-free equilibrium point are also analyzed. Moreover, the existence and uniqueness of the solution were proved. The parameters for the model are estimated from a data set that consists of the total number of infected, recovered, and dead populations worldwide in the year 2020 using the Nelder-Mead optimization method. When the time approaches infinity, the infected population converges to a constant value, the recovered population declines and reaches zero, and the death population attains a constant value. However, some modifications to the system are needed. In future work, measures such as health precautions, vaccinations are needed to be considered for the formulation of the mathematical model.</p> Amila Sudu Ambegedara Asini A. Konpola Chathurika S. Gunasekara Indika G. Udagedara Copyright (c) 2021 Amila Sudu Ambegedara, Asini A. Konpola, Chathurika S. Gunasekara, Indika G. Udagedara 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Sustainable Use of Biomass Boiler Ash as a Reinforcement Filler for Polyamide 6 Composite <p>The use of biomass combustion ash as a reinforcing filler has taken the attention in recent years to reduce the overall production cost and increase the mechanical properties of plastics. This study evaluates the effect of biomass boilers ash (BBA) as a reinforcing filler on polyamide 6 composites (PA6). The chemical composition and thermal stability of BBA were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential thermal analysis (DTA) thermographs. Test samples were prepared by varying the ash content (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%), and also samples were prepared without adding ash as a control. Moreover, surface modification was carried out by using N-2 (Aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyl triethoxy diamino-silane as a possible coupling agent for BBA and it was tested by varying the coupling agent concentration (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) by dry process and the samples were prepared by extrusion and injection molding processes. Comparative analysis of the degree of crystallinity, mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, and thermal properties were tested. The highest degree of crystallinity was obtained with 7.5% BBA-filled composites. The addition of 2% surface-modified BBA (SBBA) filled composites (PA6 / 10% Ash 2% CA) showed an increase of tensile strength and elongation at break than the 10% unmodified BBA (UBBA) (PA6/ 10% Ash) filled composites. Stress at peak and bending modulus values in the flexural test data were increased up to 10%. But it was significantly reduced with the increasing of modifying agent concentration due to the increment of stiffness of the composite.</p> Maddumage S. Thathsarani Mahesh J. Dheerasinghe Suranga M. Rajapaksha Sisira K. Ranatunga Shiran Perera Chami N. K. Patabendige Copyright (c) 2021 Maddumage S. Thathsarani, Mahesh J. Dheerasinghe, Suranga M. Rajapaksha, Sisira K. Ranatunga, Shiran Perera, Chami N. K. Patabendige 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Effect of Abiotic Stress on Onion Yield: A Review <p><span class="fontstyle0">Onion (</span><span class="fontstyle2">Allium cepa </span><span class="fontstyle0">L.) is a spice crop and a valuable economic crop cultivated in a variety of environments around the world. Because of its export demand, it is extremely important in terms of foreign exchange. Drought stress, waterlogging stress, heat stress, cold stress, and salinity stress all have an impact on onion growth, production, and yield in different ways. A lack of water causes low productivity, therefore to increase onion yield, a constant supply of water is needed. Onions are particularly susceptible to salt stress. The number of bulbs per unit area, height, and fresh weight of onion bulbs, are all affected by salinity in irrigation water. It has an effect on bulbing and the quality of harvested bulbs. Waterlogging has a major effect on bulb development and yield at various growth stages. Waterlogging stress in onions may prevent moving from source to sink, lowering bulb yield. The possible flavor of onions can be affected by the surrounding climate. The bulbing response is influenced by temperature, and the degree to which it is influenced varies by variety. As the temperature increases, the number of leaves decreases. The bulb diameter, bulb weight, and bulbing index (bulb/neck diameter) all increase as the temperature rises. This review provides an in-depth description of the effect of abiotic stress on onion yield.</span> </p> Vassanthini Ratnarajah Niroash Gnanachelvam Copyright (c) 2021 Vassanthini Ratnarajah, Niroash Gnanachelvam 2021-05-30 2021-05-30 Identification of the Appropriate Curing Method for Sri Lankan Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Compare its Phytochemical Properties with an Indian Market Sample <p>Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is an underground rhizome that is an essential ingredient in day-to-day life. India is the major turmeric production and exportation country in the world. However, since December 2019, Sri Lanka has banned the importation of turmeric from other countries like India. Curing is a significant step during the processing of turmeric, which can be described as cooking fresh turmeric rhizomes before going to the drying step. Curing helps to avoid the raw odor, to reduce the drying time, to distribute the pigment product uniformly, and facilitate uniform drying. This study was conducted to identify the best protocol for turmeric processing and compare the quality of local turmeric samples prepared by using different processing steps such as, uncured and dried as slices, water boiled and dried as slices, steamed and dried as slices with imported turmeric from India. All the samples were separately analyzed for phytochemical properties (moisture content, volatile oil content, curcumin content, oleoresin content, etc.). Curcumin is an important attribute when considering the quality of turmeric. Curcumin content is varied with the curing step. The lowest curcumin content was shown by the uncured and sliced sample (2.86 ± 0.13 %). Steamed and dried as slices sample showed the highest curcumin content (4.51 ± 0.02 %). Curing and Slicing also decreased the drying time. However, water boiled and sliced sample (T-2) showed a high yield (wet to dry ratio 5.41:1), volatile oil content 4.40 ± 0.00 %, and oleoresin content 14.81 ± 2.36 %. According to the results, among the locally produced turmeric, steamed and dried as slices sample (T-3) showed good quality especially for curcumin content.</p> Chathuri Senanayake Anuradha Munasinghe Thushari Liyanage Copyright (c) 2021 Chathuri Senanayake, Anuradha Munasinghe, Thushari Liyanage 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Development of an Edible Coating from Okra Mucilage to Preserve the Crispiness in Soft Dough Biscuits Upon Storage <p>Baked food products are considered to be one of the most popular processed foods in the world. Among all the bakery products, biscuits are the most frequently consumed snack food item. There is a vast and diverse market for biscuits as a leader in ready-to-eat baked goods. Biscuits have long shelf life than other bakery products when stored under proper conditions. But immediately after exposure to the air by opening or damaging the package, biscuits absorb moisture from the air and reduce its crispiness of the biscuits. According to the market survey results, the highest number of respondents (53.7 %) suggested developing an edible coating for biscuits to prevent the loss of crispiness in biscuits upon storage. As well as 98.5 % of respondents prefer edible coatings developed using natural sources. Polysaccharide-based edible coatings maintain the physicochemical, microbiological &amp; sensorial properties of the food. Therefore, okra mucilage was used as the main ingredient for edible coating preparation for biscuits. The coating was applied on biscuits with different coating methods, different baking stages and stored in different environmental conditions to identify the efficiency of the coating. According to the results, a coating applied before the baking stage displayed better moisture barrier properties than that of the coating applied after baking in controlled, semi-controlled, and normal atmospheric environmental conditions. It's responsible for the reduction of moisture absorption of biscuits upon storage</p> Chathuri M. Senanayake Thiini Nayanakanthi Paul Siranjiv Copyright (c) 2021 Chathuri M. Senanayake, Thiini Nayanakanthi, Paul Siranjiv 2021-06-09 2021-06-09 Dynamic Optimization Self-adaptive AI Controller for a Four-wheel Independent Drive Electric Rover <p>In this paper, a dynamic optimization self-adaptive controller for a four-wheel independent drive electric rover has been investigated to enhance the dynamic stability. The proposed self-adaptive AI controller is based on dynamic Fuzzy Logic (FL) control mechanism. The dynamic self-adaptive properties have been integrated into the proposed FL controller through a dynamically tuned Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) mechanism. Nevertheless, the dynamic FL controller and the dynamic PSO mechanism has been synchronized together for every sampling instance k to obtain the optimum performance of the electric rover. In this electric rover, all the four wheels have a fixed orientation and each wheel powered by a 250-Watt Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor through separate gear ratio mechanisms to obtain the desired torque and angular velocity. Therefore, the steering mechanism was achieved in this rover through the proposed AI controller, which was based on the differential speed mechanism. However, this paper presents the control methodology and obtained test results related to straight road tests under different slippery road conditions. The rover test results show that on different slippery road conditions the proposed PSO based FL controller has maintained the wheel slip ratio of all the four wheels which was less than 0.35 approximately. Here, the translational speed has been limited to 40 km/hr approximately within its recorded top speed of 90 km/hr while maintaining the desired fix orientation.</p> Hasitha Ruwan Jayetileke W.R. de Mel H.U.W. Ratnayake Copyright (c) 2021 Hasitha Ruwan Jayetileke, W.R. de Mel, H.U.W. Ratnayake 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Review on Carbon Black and Graphite Derivatives-based Natural Rubber Composites <p>Functional materials based on the crystalline allotropes of carbon have garnered tremendous interest from researchers in chemistry, physics, and material science for a long time. This paper reviews studies carried out on carbon black and graphite derivatives, their properties, and manufacturing applications. Graphite derivatives such as graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, expanded graphite, and graphene quantum dots are reviewed, along with a discussion of their synthesis and advantages. Generally, carbon black and graphite derivatives are incorporated into the polymeric material to enhance the performance of the end material. Recently, much attention has turned to the structural and electronic properties of carbon-based polymeric materials. Hence, at present, graphite-based polymeric material is the hottest topic in physics and materials science due to excellent electric and thermal conductivity, optical, mechanical properties, etc. The most common and widely used filler for rubber in the industry is carbon black due to its excellent physico-mechanical properties, thermal stability, oil resistance, etc. Therefore, carbon black and graphite derivatives incorporated composites of natural rubber have been reviewed in detail, along with a discussion of the current limitations and challenges of these exciting materials.</p> Sampath Wickramage Don C.A.N. Fernando D.G. Edirisinghe Copyright (c) 2021 Sampath Wickramage Don, C.A.N. Fernando, D.G. Edirisinghe 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 The Role of MEMS in In-Vitro-Fertilization <p>The assisted reproduction has been considered a viable solution for the infertility of humankind for more than four decades. In-Vitro-Fertilization (IVF) is one of the most successful assisted reproduction techniques, where the reproductive cell of the female partner is fertilized outside of her body. Initially, the IVF process has been conducted manually by an experienced embryologist. However, even with a highly experienced individual, the operation had extremely lower success rates due to the limited control in environmental conditions and the requirement of precise movements. Therefore, to address this technological deficit, the feasibility of the mechatronics devices for IVF procedures has been investigated. Among the different mechatronics concepts, micro-electromechanical system (MEMS) technologies have been gradually attracted to the IVF process and improved its capabilities. The purpose of this paper is to present a brief overview of the role of MEMS technologies in IVF. The article classifies the MEMS technologies in IVF based on their application in order to emphasize its contribution. In addition, the article extensively discusses the state-of-the-art mechatronic techniques utilized in Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), one of the most popular techniques used in IVF. This review article expects to become extremely beneficial for the engineering researchers new to this field who seek critical information on IVF in simple terms with highlights on the possible advancements and challenges that may emerge in the future.</p> Isira Wijegunawardana Y. W. R. Amarasinghe Copyright (c) 1970 Mr. I. D. Wijegunawardana, Professor Y. W. R. Amarasinghe 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Effect of Different Process Parameters on the formation of Silver Nanoparticles using Crude and Modified Neem (Azadirachta indica) Leaf Extracts <p>In recent times, the biosynthesis of nanoparticles, which has led to significant growth in the field of nanotechnology. The use of plant extracts has become an impetus in this field as it is a simple and eco-friendly method. This study was an attempt to study different parameters in biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using <em>Azadirachta indica</em> (Neem) leaf extracts. Four different process parameters such as concentrations of neem leaf extract, types of neem leaf extract, mixing ratios and the reaction time period were investigated on the formation of silver nanoparticles. Initially, the formation of silver nanoparticles was detected by the visual observation. Then, the synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized using UV-Visible spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The change of color from yellow to reddish brown color confirmed the formation of silver nanoparticles. The silver surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band obtained in the expected visible range of UV-Visible spectroscopy confirmed the synthesis of the nanoparticles. SEM images showed that silver nanoparticles are roughly spherical and of uniform particle size, and the average particle size is 100 nm. Further, the maximum absorbance of SPR band was considerably varied with different process parameters used in the present study. The UV-Visible spectra of 2.5 g/100 mL of crude neem leaf extract without any dilution showed maximum absorbance in the expected range with the mixing ratio of (Neem and AgNO<sub>3</sub>) 1:8. However, the maximum absorbance of modified neem leaf extracts (pH 10) resulted lower in value than the crude extracts in the 20 times diluted sample with the mixing ratio of 1:9. Moreover, modified extract with UV radiation exposure increased the absorbance in the expected visible range. It concludes that fine tuning of the bioprocess parameters would enhance nanoparticle synthesis. </p> Kalaivani Vivehananthan W.H. De Silva Copyright (c) 2021 Kalaivani Vivehananthan, W.H. De Silva 2021-06-08 2021-06-08 The Importance of Involving Community Organizations for Preventing Destructive Fishing Activities in Mannar, Sri Lanka <p>The irresponsible destructive fishing practices with respect to the ecosystem approach have remained a major concern since the elimination of these practices has not been easy despite efforts. There is an urgent need to identify the different types of destructive fishing methods and their threats to fisheries then, to assess how the different organizations/groups/individuals confront with these threats. This study was carried out in Pesalai, a fisheries village in the Mannar district of Northern Sri Lanka in the years 2016 and 2017. The methodology employed consists of a pre-tested structured questionnaire in the field survey with a random sample of 310 fishers and a focus group discussion was conducted where 20 fishers actively participated. The results revealed that trawling net fishing, dynamite fishing, brush pile fishing, and stake net were being used extensively by the fishers. However, the use of such gears have facilitated to catch more fish and earning a high income. Resultant, the major negative impacts were gearing damages, nets damages and net loss. It is apparently found that, the majority of fisheries (93%) had faith in fisher community organizations (fisheries co-op society, the church/father and women welfare society) in terms of resolving conflicts which were raised by destructive fisheries (wrangling, argument and dissension) while 7% of the respondents have faith in the state to resolve conflicts. The fisheries believed that, the government supports for fishing activities was not well required. Hence, it is strongly concluded that the Regulations should be enforced, as a joint effort between the department of fisheries and community organizations.</p> S. S. M. Peramunagama Thusyanthini Ramanathan Copyright (c) 2021 S. S. M. Peramunagama, Thusyanthini Ramanathan 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Detection of mecA Gene and Identification of Potential Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus in Hospital Wastewater Samples <p>Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most important causes of hospital infections worldwide. Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) tends to be resistant to multiple antibiotics. High-level resistance to antibiotics is caused by the mecA gene, which encodes an alternative penicillin-binding protein, PBP 2a. The present study was aimed to detect mecA in potential Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates in clinical wastewater. Three hospital wastewater samples were collected and the bacteria were isolated in manitol salt agar (MSA) medium. PCR was performed and sequencing was done to screen the clinical bacterial isolates. Antibiotic resistance was also tested at the levels of 50, 100, 200 and 300 μg/mL ampicillin. The sequences were analyzed using BLAST (NCBI) and EMBOSS Needle tool (EMBL-EBI). DNA extracted from these bacterial isolates amplified further with mecA gene specific primers. Randomly selected two bacterial isolates of Polgahawela hospital effluent were able to grow at 200 μg/mL ampicillin. Sequence analysis of amplified mecA gene product of these two bacterial isolates showed sequence similarity with the penicillin-binding protein (mecA) gene of Staphylococcus aureus strain and methicillin-resistance gene region of Staphylococcus sciuri 28C with 95% and 96% identity respectively. Pairwise alignment results proved 89.6% sequence similarity between the two sequences. In conclusion, potential methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) along with Staphylococcus sciuri was able to detect only in the clinical effluent collected from Polgahawela base hospital.</p> Kalaivani Vivehananthan M. P. D. L. Luphzhy Copyright (c) 2021 Kalaivani Vivehananthan, M. P. D. L. Luphzhy 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Accident Hotspots in Southern Expressway of Sri Lanka: Interpolation Evaluation using GIS <p>In this study, the southern expressway, which is the first and lengthiest E class highway (126 km) in Sri Lanka, was analysed for roadside accident incidences. The primary objective of this paper is to identify the best-fit interpolation techniques for the hotspots' most distinctive causes of vehicular crashes. The accident details were collected from the Police Headquarters consisting of 966 accidents that took place during the period from 2015 to 2017. To identify accident hotspots, GIS-based interpolation techniques such as Ordinary Kriging, Kernel Density Estimation (KDE), Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW), and Nearest Neighbour Interpolation methods were used. The spatial interpolation outcome of the four methods was compared based on the standard Prediction Accuracy Index (PAI). The analysis was executed using QGIS and GeoDa. Results of PAI revealed that an IDW and KDE outperformed the other two interpolation methods. The left and right lanes of the expressway, spotted with 11 and 20 hotspots, respectively, indicate the right lane was 50% more prone to accidents than the left lane. Notably, nearly 5% of the entire road stretch is estimated as accident-prone spots in both lanes. Peak accidents were recorded during afternoon and evening hours, and buses were the most active vehicle type. Uncontrolled speeding was the primary reason for more than 50% of the accidents, while unsuccessful overtake accounted for more than 20% of the accidents on the highway. The road design modifications and warning sign placements at appropriate places may be recommended as countermeasures.</p> P.K. Nalaka M. S. R. Akther G. Naveendrakumar Copyright (c) 2021 P.K. Nalaka, M. S. R. Akther, G. Naveendrakumar 2021-05-31 2021-05-31 Test_uploading <p>fgrvfrgrg</p><p>fbdbdb</p> Akila wijethunga Copyright (c) 2021 Akila wijethunga 2021-02-11 2021-02-11