Advances in Technology <p>The <strong style="font-style: italic;">Advances in Technology</strong>, founded in 2021, is an international journal aims to promote emerging technological advances and innovations in Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Technology.</p> <p><strong>Aim</strong></p> <p><em><strong>Advances in Technology</strong> (ISSN 2773-7098) </em>is an open-access, peer-reviewed journal concerned with theoretical and experimental research pertaining to the knowledge and applications of Technology in aspects of Applied Sciences, Engineering, and Education.</p> <p><strong>Scope</strong></p> <p><strong><em>Advances in Technology </em></strong>journal welcomes articles, communications and reviews that identify and examine technology advancements. The journal focuses on research in the following main fields, but not limited to, Advanced Materials, Agriculture Technology, Automation, Automobile, Aquatic and Marine, Biotechnology, Biomedical, Building Services, Civil and Construction Technology, Computer Networks, Data Science, Deep Learning, Electrical and Electronics, Energy, Environmental Technology, Field Crop Management, Emerging Food Technology, Food Preservation Technology, Food Engineering Technology, Geotechnology, Information and Communication Technology, Industrial Bioprocessing, Mechatronics, Mechanical Technology, Multimedia Technology, Nanotechnology, Robotics, Science for Technology, Transportation, Polymer Technology, and Waste Management Technology. The journal provides a platform for publishing technology research papers that straddles the boundaries separating two or more disciplines.</p> <p><strong>The journal's entire review process will take 21-28 days from the initial submission to the final decision. Acceptance to proofread stage will take up to 14 days. Once accepted, the manuscript will be published in the upcoming volume. </strong><strong><em>Advances in Technology</em> publishes three issues annually.</strong></p> <p><strong>ISSN: </strong>ISSN 2773-7098</p> <p> </p> en-US <p dir="ltr"><span>The Authors hold the copyright of their manuscripts, and all articles are circulated under the terms of the </span><span>Creative Commons Attribution License</span><span>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as that the original work is properly cited.</span></p><p dir="ltr"><span>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The authors are responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</span></p><div><span><br /></span></div> (Editor-in-Chief) (Editorial Manager) Sun, 15 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Suitability of Reusing the Spent Diatomaceous Earth in Brick Production: A Review <p>Diatomaceous Earth (DE) is commonly used as a filter material in the brewery industry. Spent Diatomaceous Earth (SDE) is an industrial waste generated after filling DE pores with impurities from brewing industries during filtration. After the final filtering process, this SDE is disposed into dumping areas, causing numerous environmental concerns. SDE has been recently reported as a substitute for clay in brick production. Incorporating SDE with clay in brick production can reduce the amount of clay added to the brick and the SDE waste discharged into the environment. However, only limited literature is available on SDE utilization in brick production. This paper reviews the recent research on reusing SDE in brick production. Moreover, the manufacturing process of bricks, including essential chemical reactions accompanying the firing of brick, properties of SDE and clay, factors maintained in brick, and affecting the quality of brick, have also been discussed in this review.</p> Rohan Dassanayake, Chamila Gunathilake, Rumesh Nanayakkara Copyright (c) 2022 Rohan Dassanayake, Chamila Gunathilake, Rumesh Nanayakkara Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Analyzing Data Encryption Efficiencies for Secure Cloud Storages: A Case Study of Pcloud vs OneDrive vs Dropbox <p>Now more than ever has it become important to keep the information confidential in an age that is losing its value of individual privacy. In this cloud computing era, regardless of the power of the cloud computing concept, many people do not know that their information can be used and sent to third parties from their cloud storage provider. Today the use of cloud storage is well established however the security of protecting the data on the cloud is a limited thought for most users. Therefore, this study aims to experimentally research which encryption program works best when storing data onto three of the main cloud storage providers currently available on the market. This study will go over the hardware and network impact as well as the time to encrypt and decrypt the data. This study will determine if “7zip” or “rclone” encryption programs work best with these three cloud storage. The data will be collected using NetData tool and accordingly determine which encryption application works best with which cloud storage provider. Thereafter, based on the data analysis, it is recommended that experimental outcomes to all users to keep their sensitive data secured and safe from snooping or prevent private information from being collected and sold to third parties with the help of black market.</p> Steven Gamnis, Matthew VanderLinden, Akalanka Mailewa Copyright (c) 2022 Steven Gamnis, Matthew VanderLinden, Akalanka Mailewa Sat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Study on Time Overrun related to Construction Projects in Sri Lanka <p>The time overrun in construction projects is a common issue around the world and no exception in Sri Lankan construction industry. The aims are to identify the causes and their significance to the project time overrun as well as to provide suggestions for those identified causes. Totally 39 significant factors were identified as relevant to Sri Lankan construction industry through a literature survey. Then a quantitative questionnaire approach was conducted to identify the significance of factors from industry professionals (civil engineers, quantity surveyors, technical officers, supervisors &amp; directors, and the persons with minimum qualification and experience in the construction industry) working as stakeholders such as clients, consultants, and contractors without considering the project type. The previously identified 39 factors were found to be applicable to the Sri Lankan construction industry with survey results. Through the survey, 33 responses were collected and analyzed based on the relative important index of the results. Highly weighted 15 project time overrun factors were analyzed in detail. Mainly, three factors of time overrun in construction projects were identified by ranking based on overall responses; i) contractor’s improper planning, ii) mistakes during construction by contractors, and iii) delay in preparation and approval of drawings. At the same time, social and cultural factors and disputes with surroundings or neighbours got the least significance based on ranking. The relationship between the significance of factors and relevance to the construction party (contractor, consultant) is also identified in this study. From questionnaire responses, the political influence, material theft, labor attitudes and motivation, and unexpected material cost increase than the total budget was selected for the further discussion. Finally, recommendations are provided for future development projects such as the contractor’s proper planning. As well as experienced and well knowledge professional to be appointed as a project manager by contracting firm.</p> Yathupriyan Arulvel, Sankha Widisinghe Copyright (c) 2022 Yathupriyan Arulvel, Sankha Widisinghe Sun, 15 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Social and Situational Influences on Customer Shift Towards Self-Service Technologies <p>In recent years, significant developments have occurred in the service sector, most notably the introduction of technological interfaces to customer care interactions. Even though businesses invested heavily in Self-Service Technologies (SSTs) in the hope of maximizing their benefits, customers have not adopted the technology in the manner anticipated. Among many reasons behind customer movement towards SSTs, this study investigates the social and situational influences which have received little attention in scholarly work. To accomplish this purpose, a qualitative methodology is used, with 25 semi-structured interviews performed with SST users who were chosen using a purposive sampling method, and the responses were analyzed using the thematic analysis method. The study identified the influences of numerous social groups and classified them into three categories: personal sources, organizational sources, and the society at large. Eight situational factors were found as influencing to use SSTs: travel limitations, crowding, urgency, number/volume of transactions, nature of transactions, task complexity, payment mode, group/alone behaviors. This understanding fills the gap in the literature while providing insights to SST service providers that are needed to promote SST use and handle various conditions in which their customers' SST usage may fluctuate from situation to situation.</p> Sandamali Galdolage Copyright (c) 2022 Sandamali Galdolage Tue, 03 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 A Contribution of IT to Implementation of Digital Learning in State Universities of Sri Lanka during the Covid-19 Pandemic <p>This study aims to identify the impact of digital learning in Sri Lankan state universities and the contribution of ICT to the implementation of digital learning during the Covid-19 pandemic. This study also aims to investigate the impact of digital learning conducted in academic activities while the Covid-19 pandemic; its implementation in state universities in Sri Lanka and the challenges encountered by the academic staff members and students. The purpose of this study is to identify the positive and negative effects of virtual mode studies and their adaptations. In addition, this study will help to identify future digital learning opportunities at Sri Lankan state universities. Data collection was conducted through an interview guide and implemented with some research-related open-ended questions and thematically analyzed the data, and interviews were conducted to carry out research work at eight Sri Lankan state universities. The methodology of this study was qualitative, and the sample of this study was purposive. The findings of this study developed three main themes; implementation of virtual learning; blended learning and distance evaluation; and adaption to rapid changes. Based on the results, academic recommendations are considered when making recommendations for future studies.</p> Pirunthavi Sivakumar, K. Wijikumar Copyright (c) 2022 Pirunthavi Sivakumar, K. Wijikumar Sat, 07 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Diagnosing Mathematics Ability of Technology Students: Misconceptions in Algebra <p>Catering to a long-standing need in the country, the technology stream was introduced to the G.C.E. (A/L) in Sri Lanka in 2015 with one compulsory subject Science for Technology formed by combining six Science subjects including Mathematics. There is no argument that a sound Mathematics background is essential to produce a good technology graduate. Not only do technologists need Mathematics knowledge in technological applications, but also the logical, analytical, and critical thinking developed through the learning of mathematics is essential for them in solving problems. Hence, technology faculties around the country observe that the command in mathematics of their new entrants needs improvement. As a diagnosis and to uplift their mathematics achievement, this study aims to explore one aspect of their mathematics knowledge: common mistakes and misconceptions. This paper reports on the extent to which algebraic mistakes are made by students entering Technology Faculties. The data for this study comes from a three-week online intensive mathematics course that students follow, prior to commencing their degree program. Students ask to respond to ten questions designed to capture errors in algebraic manipulations. The analysis of data shows a lack of understanding of the intricacies of division by zero consequently resulting in cancellation errors, erroneous manipulations of algebraic expressions, and improper use of parenthesis and priority of exponents in the order of operations. Another mistake is extending the distributive property of multiplication over addition erroneously to distributing multiplication over multiplication. More importantly, the data reveals a training these students have received in school that is mathematically less precise and therefore highlights the need to make students unlearn these erroneous habits that is ingrained in them for many years. Further, these results urge instructors to incorporate purposeful remedial actions into their early mathematics courses to better prepare them for their future technology.</p> <p> </p> <p><em>Full paper submission of ICIET 2021</em></p> Rovini Rathnayake, Gaya N Jayakody Copyright (c) 2022 Rovini Rathnayake, Gaya N Jayakody Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Diagnosing Localized and Distributed Bearing Faults by Bearing Noise Signal Using Machine Learning and Kurstogram <p>Bearings are a common component and crucial to most rotating machinery. Their failures are the causes for more than half of the total machine failures, each with the potential to cause extreme damage, injury, and downtime. Therefore, fault detection through condition monitoring has a significant importance. Since the initial cost of standard condition monitoring techniques such as vibration signature analysis is high and has a long payback period, the condition monitoring via audio signal processing is proposed for both localized faults and distributed/ generalized roughness faults in the rolling bearing. It is not appropriate to analyze bearing faults using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) of the noise signal of bearing since localized faults are Amplitude Modulated (AM) and mixed up with background noises. Localized faults are processed using Kurstogram technique for finding the appropriate filtering band because localized faulty bearings produce impulsive signals</p> Kanagasundram Jathursajan, Akila Wijethunge Copyright (c) 2022 Kanagasundram Jathursajan, Akila Wijethunge Mon, 23 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Online Education: An “opportunity” for a positive change in the teaching learning process <p>Online Education: An “opportunity” for a positive change</p> <p>in the teaching learning process</p> Gaya Jayakody, PhD Copyright (c) 2021 Gaya Jayakody, PhD Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Bioactive, Microbiological, and Sensory Properties of Sargassum cristaefolium and Sargassum crassifolium Herbal Tea <p>Sargassum is a genus of brown seaweed rich in bioactive compounds such as fucoidan which has various health promoting properties including anti-cancer activity, anti-viral activity, and anti-inflammatory activity. This study examines the potential to develop herbal tea using Sargassum cristaefolium and Sargassum crassifolium Seaweeds were collected from the southern coastal area of Sri Lanka and identified using a morphological key. Each seaweed type was thoroughly cleaned, blanched, and dehydrated either by oven-drying (40 ℃ for 48 h) or freeze-drying technique and separately ground to a coarse powder, which resulted in four treatments as oven-dried S. cristaefolium and S. crassifolium, and freeze-dried S. cristaefolium and S. crassifolium. Dried Sargassum powders were analyzed separately for moisture content, total phenolics (Folin-ciocalteu method), total flavonoids (Aluminum chloride method), and radical scavenging activity (DPPH method), total carotenoids, and fucoidan content (spectrophotometric method). Freeze-dried Sargassum powder samples gave significantly higher total phenolic content (P&lt;0.05) compared to oven-dried Sargassum powder. Total phenolics content of S. crassifolium and S. cristaefolium were 0.73± 0.12 and 1.27± 0.32 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry weight, respectively. Total flavonoid contents were not significantly different among the S. cristaefolium and S. crassifolium seaweed powder considering oven drying and freeze-drying method. Freeze-dried Sargassum powders gave significantly higher radical scavenging activity (P&lt;0.05) than oven-dried Sargassum powders. Radical Scavenging activities of freeze-dried S.crassifolium and S.cristaefolium powders were 34.6%± 1.87 and 46.83±8.30%, respectively. Oven-dried Sargassum powders gave significantly higher total carotenoid content (P0.05) than freeze-dried powders. Total carotenoid content of S.crassifolium was 1.88± 0.002 µg/g dry weight while it was 1.86± 0.089 µg/g dry weight for S.cristaefolium. Freeze-dried Sargassum powders gave higher fucoidan content than oven-dried powders however there were no significant differences in the fucoidan content considering the four treatments and their tea liquors. Fucoidan content of the freeze-dried S.crassifolium seaweed powder was 30.74± 6.36 mg/200 mL, while that of S.cristaefolium was 30.0± 4.09 mg/200 mL. A 5 g weighed tea bag was brewed in 200 mL distilled water for 20 min for the preparation of herbal tea. The highest overall acceptability was taken from the oven-dried S.cristaefolium tea from the sensory evaluation. Results revealed that Sargassum powders can be successfully used as herbal tea with functional properties.</p> Dulanji Silva, Dr. Manori Bambaranda, Dr. Deshani Mudannayake Copyright (c) 2022 Dulanji Silva, Dr. Manori Bambaranda, Dr. Deshani Mudannayake Sun, 01 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Investigation of Field Performance and Film Properties of Natural Rubber Latex Preserved with a Novel Chemical <p>The traditional long-term preservative system of latex has an impact on environmental air pollution by ammonia and leads to the production of carcinogenic nitrosamine substances by tetramethyl thiuram disulfide (TMTD). In this research, ammonia and a novel preservative with a polysulfidic link were compounded and tested as a novel traditional long-term latex preservative system, to overcome the drawbacks of traditional preservative systems. Control samples were prepared with ammonia as the standard preservative. In addition, ammonia and the novel chemical mixed samples were also prepared for investigating the combined effect. After the preservation treatment, the stable nature of field NR latex was evaluated via the Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) test based on ASTM D 1076 standard. The Dry Rubber Content (DRC) test and Total Solid Content (TSC) test were carried out for VFA calculation purposes based on ISO126:2005 and ASTM D 1076 standards, respectively. The alkalinity test was carried out to maintain the required ammonia content in latex. In the first trial, traditional dispersion preparation of novel chemical dispersion failed due to the large particle size of the novel chemical. Therefore, two different novel chemical dispersions were prepared in the second trial, where dispersions 1 and 2 were prepared with wetting agents and without using a wetting agent, respectively. It was found that 0.020%v/v and 0.025% v/v concentrations of the novel chemical from dispersion 1 allowed the preservation of field NR latex for 8 days. A low concentration (0.015% v/v) of the novel chemical was able to keep latex with good stability for 5 days. The novel chemical dispersion without a wetting agent exhibited a marvelous preservative system to NR latex than with a wetting agent, because the wetting agent creates a barrier between particles of novel chemical and latex particles. The novel preservative acts as a good preservative while reducing the fumes of ammonia being emitted and eliminating the carcinogenic nitrosamine emission from TMTD.</p> Dinesha Thavaseelan, A. H. L. R. Nilmini, Gayan A. Appuhamillage, Susantha Siriwardena Copyright (c) 2022 Dinesha Thavaseelan, A. H. L. R. Nilmini, Gayan A. Appuhamillage, Susantha Siriwardena Tue, 03 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Identify the Factors that Impact the Continuous Intention to Use Digital Wallets During the COVID – 19 Pandemic: An Empirical Study of Sri Lanka <p>With the rapid development of technology, cashless payments were gained huge popularity among customers. Digital wallets, as a Fintech product, facilitate their customers to do mobile banking, mobile payments, and mobile trading more conveniently. COVID – 19 pandemic hit the world of a sudden, and Sri Lanka was also severely affected by this pandemic. Therefore, the Sri Lankan government has imposed lockdowns, quarantine curfews, and other travel restrictions to maintain the social distance among the citizens. Hence most of the day-to-day activities become the online basis. People used the internet to do their daily activities because of the convenience and the safety concerns during the COVID – 19 pandemics. Due to the travel restrictions, people were not able to travel, and they had no other choice rather than to use the online facilities to do their daily transactions. This study explores the factors that can impact the continuous intention to use digital wallets as an online payment method during the COVID – 19 pandemics. To identify these factors, questionnaires were distributed among 250 people. Correlation coefficient and multiple linear regression methods were mainly used to analyze the data obtained by the questionnaires. This analysis showed that convenience, security, usefulness, and social influence have a significant and positive impact on the usage of digital wallets. According to the following findings, this research can be concluded as these four factors can directly impact the continuous intention to use digital wallets during the COVID – 19 pandemics. Finally, this study also helps the digital wallet service providers to identify the areas they have to think critically to provide a better service to their customers.</p> Sanduni Madushanka Assalaarachchi Copyright (c) 2022 Sanduni Madushanka Assalaarachchi Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effects of Crumb Rubber on the Shear Strength of Sand: An Experimental Study <p>The application of waste rubber tires for ground improvement helps to improve the environment by recycling and reusing it as admixtures. This research aims to investigate the shear strength parameters of rubber-sand mixtures. By using crumb rubber with a constant size (425μm), the sand is replaced by different percentages (0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10%) of crumb rubber by weight. A direct shear box test is used to determine the shear strength parameters of rubber-sand mixtures with two different controlled densities. The samples were loaded with normal stresses of 20, 40 and 80kPa and were sheared at a rate of 1mm/min. Although, this experiment discovered that crumb rubbers improve the shear strength parameters in loose sand, however, a reduction in shear strength parameters was found in dense sand. Moreover, it was observed that the inclusion of crumb rubbers into sand greatly improve the strain energy of both loose and dense sand. Likewise, rubber has a low unit weight which makes it suitable for lightweight backfill materials. The surface properties of rubber should be further studied to understand the contribution of shear strength in the rubber-sand mixture.</p> Brandon Hon Kong Sung, Soon Yee Wong, Perpetua Aaniya Cyril, Min Lee Lee, Abdullahi Ali Mohamed Copyright (c) 2022 Brandon Hon Kong Sung, Soon Yee Wong, Perpetua Aaniya Cyril, Min Lee Lee, Abdullahi Ali Mohamed Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Grouping the Potential Local Feed Ingredients for Ornamental Fish Feed based on their Nutrient Composition, Cost, and Availability <p>In the ornamental fish industry, there is a growing concern about the higher freight cost of feed ingredients. The present study aimed to cluster the locally available ingredients based on their nutrient contents, price, and availability. A total of 15 ingredients; fish meal (FM), by-catches (BC), soybean seeds (Soy), maize (Ma), duckweed (DW), <em>Azolla pinnata </em>(Az), rice bran (RB), shrimp shells (SS), palmyrah fruit pulp (PFP), red seaweed (RS), wheat flour (WF), cassava flour (CF), cornflour (CoF), coconut copra waste (CCC), and groundnut cake (GNC) were selected as locally available ingredients. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was performed by grouping the ingredients based on their nutrient contents, price, and availability using Minitab 16. In PCA, the two first components accounted for 57.50% of the total variance in the initial data. Protein, calcium, phosphorus, and price contribute positively with component 1, whereas carbohydrate content is related negatively to this component. Calcium and ash content correlated positively with component 2 and fat, gross energy, and availability were linked negatively to it. The PCA allowed the clustering the ingredients into four groups. Ingredients in Group 1, including Az<em>, </em>SS, RB, DW, and RS showed a positive correlation with component 2 and they contain more fiber although, they are not accessible throughout the year. Ingredients of Group 2, PFP, WF, CoF, and CF are excellent sources of starch but contained less protein content (0.94%, 11.00%, 0.00%, and 2.80% respectively). CCC, Ma, GNC, and SB pertain to group 3 correlating poorly with component 2. They are an excellent source of protein with the advantage that they are relatively affordable and easy to available than the other groups. Ingredients in group 4 incorporated BC and FB. Although they are high in protein, they are expensive and very poor in carbohydrates. Therefore, it is recommended that the ingredients in group 3 are the best choice for feed formulation with balanced nutrition at a low cost for fish feed preparation.</p> Sutharshiny Sathyaruban, Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge, Sivashanthini Kuganathan, Harichandra Khalingarajah, Partheepan Thavaraja Copyright (c) 2022 Sutharshiny Sathyaruban, Deepthi Inoka Uluwaduge, Sivashanthini Kuganathan, Harichandra Khalingarajah, Partheepan Thavaraja Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Extraction Techniques on Phytochemicals and Antioxidants Activity of Garcinia quaesita Leaves <p style="text-align: justify;"><span class="fontstyle0">Garcinia quaesita </span><span class="fontstyle2">is an endemic plant in Sri Lanka with a wide array of domestic and medicinal values, yet very limited</span> <span class="fontstyle2">studies have been reported. The goal of this study was to investigate the phytochemicals and antioxidants capacity of</span> <span class="fontstyle2">leaves of </span><span class="fontstyle0">G. quaesita </span><span class="fontstyle2">under different extraction techniques in order to monitor the effect of extraction techniques on the</span> <span class="fontstyle2">above parameters. Water was used as the solvent and four extraction methods, namely sonication (EN01, one-hour,</span><br /><span class="fontstyle2">RT, 40 kHz), Soxhlet (EN02, six-hours, 105 ºC), maceration with agitation (EN03, six-hours, RT, 1000 rpm), and</span> <span class="fontstyle2">maceration with agitation upon heating (EN04, six-hours, 60 ºC, 1000 rpm), were applied. Phytochemical screenings</span> <span class="fontstyle2">and quantification of polyphenolics (TPC), flavonoids (TFC), tannins (TTC), terpenoids (TC), saponins (SC), and</span> <span class="fontstyle2">alkaloids (AC) were performed using standard methods, whereas antioxidants capacity was assessed using FRAP and</span> <span class="fontstyle2">DPPH assays. The results revealed that </span><span class="fontstyle0">G. quaesita </span><span class="fontstyle2">contains a wide range of phytochemicals and the TPC, TTC and SC</span> <span class="fontstyle2">profiles appeared to be higher in the extraction process of EN04 (60.73 ± 0.06 mg GAE/g, 60.12 ± 0.06 mg TAE/g, and</span> <span class="fontstyle2">257.64 ± 0.72 mg SE/g, respectively) whereas those were lower in the technique EN01. In addition, TFC and TC levels</span> <span class="fontstyle2">were high in EN02 (3.02 ± 0.00 mg QE/g and 17.75 ± 0.04 mM LE/g respectively) and besides, TFC was low in method</span> <span class="fontstyle2">EN03, whereas TC was low in EN01. Interestingly, AC was found to be higher in EN03 (1.16 ± 0.03 mg AE/g) and</span> <span class="fontstyle2">lesser in EN02. Total antioxidant capacity ( FRAP value) was calculated to be higher in extraction method EN04 (72.08</span> <span class="fontstyle2">± 0.00 mg Trolox Eq/g) whereas it was lower in extraction method EN01. The method, EN03 gave the lower IC50 value</span> <span class="fontstyle2">in DPPH radical scavenging assay (10.49 ± 0.12 mg/ml), indicating high scavenging activity. In conclusion, the</span> <span class="fontstyle2">extraction technique EN04 is well suitable to extract polyphenolics and antioxidants from </span><span class="fontstyle0">G. quaesita leaves. </span><span class="fontstyle2">Though </span><span class="fontstyle0">G.</span> <span class="fontstyle0">quaesita </span><span class="fontstyle2">leaves contain a diverse range of bioactive compounds and antioxidants properties, it is important to choose</span> <span class="fontstyle2">the correct extraction technique based on the objectives of the desired research work, as the number of phytochemicals</span> <span class="fontstyle2">extracted, and antioxidant capacity varies depending on the extraction technique used.</span></p> <p><span class="fontstyle2"><em>Full paper submission of ICIET 2021</em></span></p> Shanthirasekaram Kokilananthan, Vajira Bulugahapitiya, Harshi Manawadu, Chinthaka S. Gangabadage Copyright (c) 2022 Shanthirasekaram Kokilananthan, Vajira Bulugahapitiya, Harshi Manawadu, Chinthaka S. Gangabadage Sat, 30 Apr 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Performance Analysis of Concrete Slab Reinforced with Steel and Bamboo <p>Concrete and steel are considered the main construction materials in the world today while the cost of steel is rising year by year. Though steel can be recycled, it consumes a significant amount of energy in the manufacturing and recycling stages. Thus, to cope with that risk and reduce the building budget, it will be necessary to start using alternative resources. Studies were conducted to discover the appropriateness of using timber resources (e.g., Bamboo and Palmyra) to substitute steel as reinforcements in concrete. Bamboo is a quick-growing plant and is easily obtainable in the Asia region. Bamboo has a higher tensile strength than other timber resources and strength to weight proportion. However, due to its brittle behavior, bamboo cannot fully replace steel. Characteristics of bamboo differ with its time of life and class. The main aim of this research is to suggest a suitable hybrid reinforcement with steel and bamboo for the construction industry by analyzing the concrete slab element. This paper discusses the behavior of concrete slabs, reinforced with steel and bamboo and the applicability of Finite Element Modelling (FEM) using the ABAQUS software. The numerical model was validated by the experimental investigation in the literature.</p> Iynkaran Surenthiran, Dr. (Eng.) G.B.Sakura Copyright (c) 2022 Iynkaran Surenthiran, Dr. (Eng.) G.B.Sakura Sun, 15 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Characterization of Laccase from the Fungi Fusarium Isolated from Potato Peels Using Carbon and Nitrogen Sources <p>Laccases (E.C. benzenediol: oxygen oxidoreductase) are an interesting group of N glycosylated multicopper blue oxidase enzymes. They are widely found in fungi, bacteria plants, insects, and lichen. They catalyze the oxidation of various phenolic and non-phenolic compounds, with the concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to water. Laccase has various applications in industries such as textile dye bleaching, paper, and pulp bleaching, food processing, bioremediation, biodegradation, wood processing, and pharmaceuticals. However, the high cost of production has been a major hindrance to its commercial usage. This study was carried out to investigate the extraction, purification, and characterization of laccase from fungi isolated from potato peels using three different substrates. Extraction was carried out using submerged fermentation, with glucose, lactose, and maltose as the carbon sources and varying nitrogen sources; yeast and ammonium chloride (NH<sub>4</sub>Cl) Laccase was also characterized by assessing parameters such as pH, temperature, and protein concentration. Enzyme activity for maltose (yeast), glucose (yeast), glucose (NH<sub>4</sub>Cl) and lactose (NH<sub>4</sub>Cl) increased from 25<sup>o</sup>C -45 <sup>o</sup>C with optimum pH of 6,6,8 and 5 respectively while activity for maltose (NH<sub>4</sub>Cl) and lactose(yeast) increased from 25<sup>o</sup>C-65<sup>o</sup>C with optimum pH at 5 and 8 respectively. This study suggests that increased laccase production from potato peels can be achieved by using maltose, glucose and lactose as carbon sources with NH<sub>4</sub>Cl as nitrogen source.</p> Joseph Minari, Esther Esesoa Agho, Ekenem Emelumadu, Oloruntimileyin Adeniyi, Funke Ruth Olajiga Copyright (c) 2022 joseph minari, ESTHER ESEOSA AGHO, EKENEM EMELUMADU, Oloruntimileyin Adeniyi, Funke Ruth Olajiga Wed, 25 May 2022 00:00:00 +0530 The Effect of Hydrogen Peroxide based Hand Sanitizing Chemicals on the Physicomechanical Properties of the NBR Gloves <p>During the Covid-19 pandemic, according to the guidelines given by the World Health Organization (WHO), all industrial and examination gloves are subjected to disinfection globally using hand sanitizers. This may affect the physicomechanical properties of the gloves. However, limited data are available regarding the aforesaid issue. This research is focused on investigating the effect of hydrogen peroxide-based hand sanitizer formulations, recommended by WHO on the chemical and physicomechanical properties of NBR gloves. NBR gloves were exposed to sanitizing chemicals with different application frequencies for eight hours and the properties were evaluated after 48 hours. The results revealed that there is no significant effect of sanitizer formulation on the mechanical properties of NBR gloves such as tensile strength, tear resistance, elongation at break, modulus at 100%, and 300% even at high frequent applications. Physical properties such as discoloration, swelling, and leakages were also not affected by the application of sanitizers. Further, DSC and TGA test results revealed that there is no significant change in crystallinity and thermal properties between control and test samples. However, FT-IR analysis indicated a change in the chemical environment of the surface of the glove specimens. Since FT-IR is a surface analysis technique, it can be identified as the surface of the gloves has been affected by the exposure to sanitizer formulations. Nevertheless, the inadequate time for the hand sanitizing chemicals to be penetrated to the core of the gloves might result in unchanged physicomechanical properties within 48 hours. Knowing the fact that the examination gloves have a very short usage time, it can be concluded that the effect of hydrogen peroxide-based hand sanitizer formulations on NBR examination gloves is negligible. However, we highlight the importance of conducting further research for an extended period to evaluate the effect of the exposure on heavy-duty NBR gloves such as industrial gloves.</p> Aradhana Nilmini, Shirani Priyanka, Renuka Nilmini, Susantha Siriwardene, Gayan Priyadarshana Copyright (c) 2022 Aradhana Nilmini, Shirani Priyanka, Renuka Nilmini, Susantha Siriwardene, Gayan Priyadarshana Fri, 04 Mar 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Environmental-Friendly and Non-Toxic TBSI as an Alternative for MOR Accelerator <p>In the solid tyre rubber industry, most accelerators can produce n-nitrosamines as a by-product during the vulcanization process. As many n-nitrosamines are carcinogenic, they are highly regulated in final rubber articles and during manufacturing process. 2-(Morpholinothio benzothiazole (MOR) is the primary accelerator used in vulcanizing systems. It produces nitrogen toxic gases (nitrogen oxide and amine gas) which are carcinogenic. In this research MOR was successfully replaced with N-tert-butyl-2-benzothiazole sulfenimide (TBSI) accelerator which has no carcinogenic effect. The main objective of this research is to maintain its original properties while replacing MOR with TBSI accelerator. This study was conducted and test samples were made of bonding rubber compound that is used to make the bonding layer of tyres which is the common part in all type of solid tyres. Physical-mechanical and bonding properties were analyzed for MOR and TBSI added bonding compound samples. Tensile, hardness, density and rheological using Oscillating die rheometer properties were also measured to maintain the quality of the tyre. The property change of bond layer can affects the other tyre layers. So, it can lead to failure of curing process or failure in performance of the tyre during the applications. The TBSI curing characteristics are closer to MOR sample. However other physical properties like hardness and density of TBSI samples were bit lower but they were in the required level as a bonding layer compound. Substitution of MOR by ‘safe TBSI’ compounds are still active as accelerators, but do not form carcinogenic gases.</p> Kiru Rethan, Amitha Sanjaya, Chami N. K. Patabendige Copyright (c) 2022 Kiru Rethan, Amitha Sanjaya, Chami N. K. Patabendige Sun, 30 Jan 2022 00:00:00 +0530 Robust Efficiency Evaluation of NextCloud and GoogleCloud <p>Cloud storage services such as GoogleCloud and NextCloud have become increasingly popular among Internet users and businesses. Despite the many encrypted file cloud systems being implemented worldwide today for different purposes, we are still faced with the problem of their usage, security, and performance. Although some cloud storage solutions are very efficient in communication across different clients, others are better in file encryption, such as images, videos, and text files. Therefore, it is evident that the efficiency of these algorithms varies based on the purpose and type of encryption and compression. This paper focuses on the comparative analysis of NextCloud with composed end-to-end solutions that use both an unencrypted cloud storage and an encrypted solution. In this paper, we measured the network use, file output size, and computation time of given workloads for two different services to thoroughly evaluate the efficiency of NextCloud and GoogleCloud. Our findings concluded that there is similar network usage and synchronization time. However, GoogleCloud had more CPU utilization than NextCloud. On the other hand, NextCloud had a longer delay when uploading files to their cloud service. Our experimental results show that the evaluation model is considered robust if its output and forecasts are consistently accurate, even if one or more of the input variables or assumptions are drastically changed due to unforeseen circumstances.</p> Nicholas Singh, Kevin Bui, Akalanka Mailewa Copyright (c) 2021 Akalanka Mailewa, Nicholas Singh, Kevin Bui Fri, 31 Dec 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Statistical Model for the Quality of Panoramic Images of Mural Paintings <p>Panoramic image creation is crucial in area of digital imaging. It is developed by combining an overlapped image component series of a large image, which is difficult to be focused on using a normal camera due to a large field of view. Measuring the quality of panoramic images is a challenging task. Therefore, the objectives of this research are to find the attributes of visual quality of panoramic images and to propose predictor variables for a statistical model for the quality of panoramic images of mural paintings. Authors have used a proposed novel method for creating panoramic images of mural painting. In this study, authors researched on the quality attributes of digital images. Accordingly, color balance, noise and distortion were identified as the two most critical factors which affect the overall quality of the panoramic images. Authors visited three temples and captured digital images of mural paintings of large scale using a simple method. Then, panoramic images were created using three methods: the novel method with other two methods, Photoshop (available in the market) and Hugin (open source software). Subjective evaluation was applied through experts in the field of Visual Arts. Participants were asked to rate the quality using four-point Likert scale for color balance, noise and distortion as predictor variables and overall quality as the response variable of panoramic images. Ordinal logistic regression was fitted through Minitab statistical package and the results showed that color balance and noise and distortion are two important attributes for the quality of the panoramic images. Moreover, the collected data fit the model at a higher accuracy.</p> <p><em>Full paper submission of ICIET 2021</em></p> Ajith Premakumara Wickramasinghe, Anusha Jayasiri Copyright (c) 2022 Ajith Premakumara Wickramasinghe, Anusha Jayasiri Mon, 21 Feb 2022 00:00:00 +0530