Advances in Technology en-US <p dir="ltr"><span>The Authors hold the copyright of their manuscripts, and all articles are circulated under the terms of the </span><span>Creative Commons Attribution License</span><span>, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, as long as that the original work is properly cited.</span></p><p dir="ltr"><span>The use of general descriptive names, trade names, trademarks, and so forth in this publication, even if not specifically identified, does not imply that these names are not protected by the relevant laws and regulations. The authors are responsible for securing any permissions needed for the reuse of copyrighted materials included in the manuscript.</span></p><div><span><br /></span></div> (Editor-in-Chief) (Editorial Manager) Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0530 OJS 60 Passive Daylighting Systems <p><strong>Passive daylighting approaches stimulate the quantity and even distribution of daylight throughout a building by collecting natural light and reflecting it into darker areas of the building. What makes this a “passive” approach is that the design elements do not require any special mechanical equipment. </strong></p> Abdul Rahim Nihmiya, PhD Copyright (c) 2021 Abdul Rahim Nihmiya, PhD Sat, 18 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Calibration and Implementation of Heat Cycle Requirement of MQ-7 Semiconductor Sensor for Detection of Carbon Monoxide Concentrations <p>Carbon monoxide (CO) is a prevalent and widely distributed air pollutant. Its detection and control in residential and industrial environments are essential in order to avoid potentially severe health consequences in people. The aim of this study was to conduct an air quality assessment by measuring CO concentrations using the MQ-7 Semiconductor Sensor. The MQ-7 sensor is a commonly accessible and cost-effective sensor with specific heating needs. The objectives of the study are to provide a method for implementing heater cycle requirements, equipment-less calibration, and the derivation of a formula for measuring CO concentrations in parts per million (ppm). A procedure for calibrating gas sensors is discussed, which involves measuring the sensing resistance and calculating the resistance ratio. The resistance ratio is then used to calculate the target gas concentration in ppm using a formula derived with the aid of Microsoft Excel, such that it represents the original CO characteristic curve provided in the sensor datasheet with greater accuracy. An N-channel MOSFET and Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) voltage were used to get the required heater voltage levels. The methodology developed for calibrating and deriving the equation to determine the target gas concentration can be used for any MQ semiconductor sensor and does not require any special equipment. </p> Nisal Kobbekaduwa, W.R. de Mel, Pahan Oruthota Copyright (c) 2021 Nisal Kobbekaduwa, Pahan Oruthota, W.R. de Mel Sat, 25 Sep 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Novel Trends in Sensor Developments for Strategic Technologies in the Modern Era <p><span class="fontstyle0">Advanced trends of sensor technology are the key components within machine applications.</span></p> Ruchire Wijesinghe Copyright (c) 2021 Ruchire Wijesinghe Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Hydrogels: Next Generation Atmospheric Water Harvesting Materials <p><strong>Hydrogels could harvest atmospheric moisture to produce clean drinking water mitigating the global water scarcity woes in future. </strong></p> Rohan S. Dassanayake, Nilmini Renuka Copyright (c) 2021 Rohan S. Dassanayake, Nilmini Renuka Mon, 21 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Antihypertensive and Cardio-Protective Potentials of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Mucuna Pruriens in Male Albino Rats <p>Hypertension is a risk factor for a variety of morbidities, especially stroke, myocardial infarction, and the development of congestive heart failure, as well as death. Several treatment options are used for treatment of hypertension; however, a lot of short comings have been associated with them. In order to proffer a possibly better and cheaper means of preventing hypertension, this study aims at investigating the antihypertensive and cardio-protective effects of the ethanolic leaf extract of Mucuna pruriens. Thirty-six male albino rats were used for the study. Oral administration of 8% salt diet was used to induce hypertension which significantly increased blood pressure and oxidative stress in the hypertensive animals compared to the control group. The phytochemical screening of the extract was carried out, the weight of the experimental animals was monitored, hematological indices was assessed, and systolic and diastolic rates were evaluated at different concentrations of the extract. The screening indicated the presence of tannin, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, and phenols while reducing sugars, cardiac glycosides, glycoside, alkaloids and steroids were absent. The weight of the liver of rats given standard drug, 150 mg/ml of the extract, 250 mg/ml of the extract and untreated groups were significant lower (p&lt;0.05) when compared with the control group while the group administered with 100 mg/ml was higher. The white blood count<br />(WBC) values of the rat in the 250 mg/ml group of rats increased significantly (p&lt;0.05) when compared with the control group. There was a significant (p&lt;0.05) increase in the RBC values of the 150 mg/ml, 250mg/ml extract group, standard drug group and the control group. The hemoglobin value of all the groups increased significantly with that of the control group. Although the use of a standard drug, nifedipine (2 mg/kg body weight) decreased blood pressure significantly (p&lt;0.05), the oral administration of ethanolic leaf extract of M. pruriens at 100 mg/ml, 150 mg/ml and 250 mg/ml caused a significant reduction (p&lt;0.05) in blood pressure, heart rate. This present study suggests that the ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens leaf possesses antihypertensive and cardio-protective properties.</p> Joseph Minari, G.E Nwosu, E.E Agho, B.O. Sholaja Copyright (c) 2021 Joseph Minari, G.E Nwosu, E.E Agho, B.O. Sholaja Fri, 15 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Using Fiber Optic Sensors for Bridge Monitoring <p>This paper presents the data obtained from monitoring a steel Struss bridge using Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors before and after a proposed repair for a crack propagation in the end plates. This paper details the operating mechanism behind the FBG sensors and advantages of using FBG sensors over resistive foil strain gauges for bridge structural health monitoring and also details how cracks on the outer web’s end plate originated and then provides a step-by-step guide to the completed repair. This technology can be use in other practical applications where structural health monitoring is needed.&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Amal Jayawardena, Gayan Appuhamillage Copyright (c) 1970 Amal Jayawardena, Gayan Appuhamillage Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Literature review on Real-time Location-Based Sentiment Analysis on Twitter <p>Sentiment analysis mainly supports sorting out the polarity and provides valuable information with the use of raw data in social media platforms. Many fields like health, business, and security require real-time data analysis for instant decision-making situations.Since Twitter is considered a popular social media platform to collect data easily, this paper is considering data analysis methods of Twitter data, real-time Twitter data analysis based on geo-location. Twitter data classification and analysis can be done with the use of diverse algorithms and deciding the most appropriate algorithm for data analysis, can be accomplished by implementing and testing these diverse algorithms.This paper is discussing the major description of sentiment analysis, data collection methods, data pre-processing, feature extraction, and sentiment analysis methods related to Twitter data. Real-time data analysis arises as a major method of analyzing the data available online and the real-time Twitter data analysis process is described throughout this paper. Several methods of classifying the polarized Twitter data are discussed within the paper while depicting a proposed method of Twitter data analyzing algorithm. Location-based Twitter data analysis is another crucial aspect of sentiment analyses, that enables data sorting according to geo-location, and this paper describes the way of analyzing Twitter data based on geo-location. Further, a comparison about several sentiment analysis algorithms used by previous researchers has been reported and finally, a conclusion has been provided.</p> <p> </p> Dilmini Rathnayaka, Pubudu K.P.N Jayasena, Iraj Ratnayake Copyright (c) 1970 Dilmini Rathnayaka Tue, 31 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Extraction and Screening of Biofilm producing Bacterial isolates in Short-and Long-term Catheters <p>Biofilm is defined as microbial-derived sessile communities enclosed with extra polymeric substances and characterized by cells that are irreversibly attached to a surface. Biofilm bacteria are a serious threat to public health as biofilm formation of bacteria in indwelling medical devices especially in urinary catheters causes persistent infections resistant to treatment with antimicrobial agents. The present study focused to screen the biofilm-producing bacteria from the indwelling urinary catheters. Both short-term and long-term urinary catheters were collected from the catheterized patients admitted in the national and a private hospital. Bacterial population removed from the catheters were tested for biofilm production by widely used three methods such as Tube method, Congo Red Agar method, and Tissue Culture Plate method. In this preliminary screening, the major biofilm producer identified in the present study is E.<em>Coli</em> in all types of catheters. Further, biofilm-producing bacteria were predominantly detected in long-term catheters than short-term catheters. In addition, the identification of more than one bacterial strain in long-term catheters revealed that bacterial diversity increases with the duration of catheterization. The results of the present study revealed that long-term urinary catheters have the potential for survival and diverse biofilm-producing bacteria.</p> Kalaivani Vivehananthan, S. Thevashayinath , I. Abeygunawardena Copyright (c) 1970 Kalaivani Vivehananthan Sat, 17 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Development of PP/Recycled-PET Blended Low Speed Wheels to Reduce the Virgin Plastic Usage in the Industry <p>The increase of plastic usage in different applications has a huge impact on the environment due waste generation. This study was focused not only to find a way to reduce the virgin plastic usage but also to convert a commodity plastic waste into a commercial engineering product. Post consumed polyethylene terephthalate (PET) water bottles were used as a source of recycled PET (r-PET) and blended with commercial grade polypropylene (PP) to produce the center part of low speed wheels. Thermomechanical properties of PP/r-PET blends were investigated along with the effect of compatibilization. The quality of prepared wheels was examined with dynamic drum test and impact test. The addition of recycled PET into polypropylene enhanced the properties of blends and it also supported to maintain the fatigue life of the wheel.</p> Suranga M. Rajapaksha, Sachini Subhashini, Sisira Ranatunga, Shiran Perera, Supun T. Wickramarathna, Sameera Herath, Chamodi P. Piyarathna Copyright (c) 2021 Suranga M. Rajapaksha, Sachini Subhashini, Sisira Ranatunga, Shiran Perera, Sameera Herath, Chamodi P. Piyarathna Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Analysis The Potentials and Barriers of Applying Flexible Ridesharing Method in Southern Expressway in Sri Lanka <p>The ridesharing arrangement means the transportation of persons in a motor vehicle when such transportation is incidental to the principal purpose of the driver, which is to reach a destination and not to transport person for profit. Internet based ridesharing is the method that allows individuals in need of transportation to access a pool of drivers through a mobile app. The research aim is to find out the potential of applying internet based ridesharing in Sri Lanka under three main objectives; to ascertain the problems of the current transportation system available in Southern Expressway, to analyze the commuters’ perception towards the internet-based ridesharing concept and to examine the potential barriers and constraints of application of internet based the ridesharing system in Southern Expressway. Accordingly, data is collected using three samples representing 30 commuters from each group; the public bus users, personal vehicle users, and arranged hired vehicle users who are frequent commuters of the Southern Expressway. According to the research findings, the majority (90%) of the commuters use Southern Expressway to travel their work place and perceive travel cost as fair cost in contrast to time. The majority of the commuters’ view is the availability of buses in Southern Expressway is not at a satisfactory level. More than 90% said Southern Expressway is much comfortable to travel. The majority of the commuters (85%) willing to use the ridesharing if it is available for Southern Expressway. More than 90% have internet access and therefore the application is not much difficult to implement in Sri Lanka. Even though, people are willing to use ridesharing application, there are some barriers have identified through this study such as gender issues, social status and fear to travel with strangers. Anyhow, research findings have shed green light to implement the ridesharing methods in southern Expressway despite of the prevailing barriers</p> Nadeeshani K.N. Silva, Chamodhi S. Bandara Copyright (c) 2021 Kodikarage Nirosha Silva, Chamodhi S. Bandara Sat, 26 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Smart Charging Method for Domestic Electric Vehicles Chargers <p>Electrical vehicles (EV) are a type of vehicle which operates by an electric motor instead of internal combustion. As the demand for EVs are increasing the demand for charging facilities also will be increasing. The research carried out introduces a smart domestic EV charger system with improved functionality while addressing the challenges associated with the implementation of EV charging stations and systems. Minimizing waste of energy, use of sophisticated technology to overcome the application of the old technologies, minimize wastage of time and finally to minimize the environment pollution are achieved using maximum energy management and effective charging with suggested smart charging methods. The mode for EV charging during the off-peak time according to the demand curve and another mode is for EV charging with renewable energy and grid supply is suggested. The smart hybrid charging system will provide the users with a solution to energy crisis and consumption and the time and capital will be saved with an easy, simple, convenient, and reliable operation.</p> Navod Bandara , Poorna Rajanayake , Akila Eranda Jayasinghe, Akila Wijethunge Copyright (c) 2021 Akila Eranda Jayasinghe, Navod Bandara , Poorna Rajanayake , Akila Wijethunge Sat, 19 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Potential Genetic Polymorphisms Predicting Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) in Sri Lankan Women: Comparison with Different Ethnicity <p>Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the commonest endocrine disorder of young women with long-term metabolic risk and prevalence among pre-marital Sri Lankan women is 6.3%. Inheritance of PCOS is likely to be oilgogenic; the genetic basis remaining largely unknown in view of the complex pathophysiology. The genetics of expression of PCOS requires an in-depth study, particularly among Sri Lankan women who have a greater metabolic risk from an early age.</p> <p>The emergence of an unanimously accepted genetic marker for susceptible PCOS was affected based on inconsistent findings. In this review, we summarize the common genetic polymorphisms of PCOS from different countries and outline some genetic polymorphisms that are potentially associated with the risk of PCOS in Sri Lankan women. This information could uncover candidate genes associating with PCOS, which will be valuable for the development of novel diagnostic and treatment method.</p> Umayal Branavan, Sulochana Wijesundera , Visvanath Chandrasekharan, Chandrika Wijeyaratne Copyright (c) 2021 Umayal Branavan, Sulochana Wijesundera , Visvanath Chandrasekharan, Chandrika Wijeyaratne Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Evolution of COVID-19 Disease Using a One Prey-Two Predator Model <p>Mathematical modeling is used to understand the dynamics of transmission of infectious diseases such as COVID-19, SARS, Ebola, and Dengue among populations. In this work, a one prey-two predator model has been developed to understand the underlying dynamics of COVID-19 disease transmission. We considered the infected, recovered, and death populations with the fact that an infected person can be transformed into the recovered or death group assuming that the infected ones are the prey, and the other two populations are the two predators in the one prey-two predator model. It was found that the proposed model has four equilibrium points; the vanishing equilibrium point ( ), recovered and death-free equilibrium point ( ), recovered population-free equilibrium point ( ), and the death-free equilibrium point ( ). Stability analysis of the equilibrium points shows that except all the other equilibrium points are locally asymptotically stable. Global asymptotic stability of the recovered population-free equilibrium point and death-free equilibrium point are also analyzed. Moreover, the existence and uniqueness of the solution were proved. The parameters for the model are estimated from a data set that consists of the total number of infected, recovered, and dead populations worldwide in the year 2020 using the Nelder-Mead optimization method. When the time approaches infinity, the infected population converges to a constant value, the recovered population declines and reaches zero, and the death population attains a constant value. However, some modifications to the system are needed. In future work, measures such as health precautions, vaccinations are needed to be considered for the formulation of the mathematical model.</p> Amila Sudu Ambegedara, Asini A. Konpola, Chathurika S. Gunasekara, Indika G. Udagedara Copyright (c) 2021 Amila Sudu Ambegedara, Asini A. Konpola, Chathurika S. Gunasekara, Indika G. Udagedara Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Sustainable Use of Biomass Boiler Ash as a Reinforcement Filler for Polyamide 6 Composite <p>The use of biomass combustion ash as a reinforcing filler has taken the attention in recent years to reduce the overall production cost and increase the mechanical properties of plastics. This study evaluates the effect of biomass boilers ash (BBA) as a reinforcing filler on polyamide 6 composites (PA6). The chemical composition and thermal stability of BBA were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential thermal analysis (DTA) thermographs. Test samples were prepared by varying the ash content (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%), and also samples were prepared without adding ash as a control. Moreover, surface modification was carried out by using N-2 (Aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyl triethoxy diamino-silane as a possible coupling agent for BBA and it was tested by varying the coupling agent concentration (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) by dry process and the samples were prepared by extrusion and injection molding processes. Comparative analysis of the degree of crystallinity, mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, and thermal properties were tested. The highest degree of crystallinity was obtained with 7.5% BBA-filled composites. The addition of 2% surface-modified BBA (SBBA) filled composites (PA6 / 10% Ash 2% CA) showed an increase of tensile strength and elongation at break than the 10% unmodified BBA (UBBA) (PA6/ 10% Ash) filled composites. Stress at peak and bending modulus values in the flexural test data were increased up to 10%. But it was significantly reduced with the increasing of modifying agent concentration due to the increment of stiffness of the composite.</p> Maddumage S. Thathsarani, Mahesh J. Dheerasinghe, Suranga M. Rajapaksha, Sisira K. Ranatunga, Shiran Perera, Chami N. K. Patabendige Copyright (c) 2021 Maddumage S. Thathsarani, Mahesh J. Dheerasinghe, Suranga M. Rajapaksha, Sisira K. Ranatunga, Shiran Perera, Chami N. K. Patabendige Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Effect of Abiotic Stress on Onion Yield: A Review <p><span class="fontstyle0">Onion (</span><span class="fontstyle2">Allium cepa </span><span class="fontstyle0">L.) is a spice crop and a valuable economic crop cultivated in a variety of environments around the world. Because of its export demand, it is extremely important in terms of foreign exchange. Drought stress, waterlogging stress, heat stress, cold stress, and salinity stress all have an impact on onion growth, production, and yield in different ways. A lack of water causes low productivity, therefore to increase onion yield, a constant supply of water is needed. Onions are particularly susceptible to salt stress. The number of bulbs per unit area, height, and fresh weight of onion bulbs, are all affected by salinity in irrigation water. It has an effect on bulbing and the quality of harvested bulbs. Waterlogging has a major effect on bulb development and yield at various growth stages. Waterlogging stress in onions may prevent moving from source to sink, lowering bulb yield. The possible flavor of onions can be affected by the surrounding climate. The bulbing response is influenced by temperature, and the degree to which it is influenced varies by variety. As the temperature increases, the number of leaves decreases. The bulb diameter, bulb weight, and bulbing index (bulb/neck diameter) all increase as the temperature rises. This review provides an in-depth description of the effect of abiotic stress on onion yield.</span> </p> Vassanthini Ratnarajah, Niroash Gnanachelvam Copyright (c) 2021 Vassanthini Ratnarajah, Niroash Gnanachelvam Sun, 30 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Identification of the Appropriate Curing Method for Sri Lankan Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) and Compare its Phytochemical Properties with an Indian Market Sample <p>Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is an underground rhizome that is an essential ingredient in day-to-day life. India is the major turmeric production and exportation country in the world. However, since December 2019, Sri Lanka has banned the importation of turmeric from other countries like India. Curing is a significant step during the processing of turmeric, which can be described as cooking fresh turmeric rhizomes before going to the drying step. Curing helps to avoid the raw odor, to reduce the drying time, to distribute the pigment product uniformly, and facilitate uniform drying. This study was conducted to identify the best protocol for turmeric processing and compare the quality of local turmeric samples prepared by using different processing steps such as, uncured and dried as slices, water boiled and dried as slices, steamed and dried as slices with imported turmeric from India. All the samples were separately analyzed for phytochemical properties (moisture content, volatile oil content, curcumin content, oleoresin content, etc.). Curcumin is an important attribute when considering the quality of turmeric. Curcumin content is varied with the curing step. The lowest curcumin content was shown by the uncured and sliced sample (2.86 ± 0.13 %). Steamed and dried as slices sample showed the highest curcumin content (4.51 ± 0.02 %). Curing and Slicing also decreased the drying time. However, water boiled and sliced sample (T-2) showed a high yield (wet to dry ratio 5.41:1), volatile oil content 4.40 ± 0.00 %, and oleoresin content 14.81 ± 2.36 %. According to the results, among the locally produced turmeric, steamed and dried as slices sample (T-3) showed good quality especially for curcumin content.</p> Chathuri Senanayake, Anuradha Munasinghe, Thushari Liyanage Copyright (c) 2021 Chathuri Senanayake, Anuradha Munasinghe, Thushari Liyanage Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Development of an Edible Coating from Okra Mucilage to Preserve the Crispiness in Soft Dough Biscuits Upon Storage <p>Baked food products are considered to be one of the most popular processed foods in the world. Among all the bakery products, biscuits are the most frequently consumed snack food item. There is a vast and diverse market for biscuits as a leader in ready-to-eat baked goods. Biscuits have long shelf life than other bakery products when stored under proper conditions. But immediately after exposure to the air by opening or damaging the package, biscuits absorb moisture from the air and reduce its crispiness of the biscuits. According to the market survey results, the highest number of respondents (53.7 %) suggested developing an edible coating for biscuits to prevent the loss of crispiness in biscuits upon storage. As well as 98.5 % of respondents prefer edible coatings developed using natural sources. Polysaccharide-based edible coatings maintain the physicochemical, microbiological &amp; sensorial properties of the food. Therefore, okra mucilage was used as the main ingredient for edible coating preparation for biscuits. The coating was applied on biscuits with different coating methods, different baking stages and stored in different environmental conditions to identify the efficiency of the coating. According to the results, a coating applied before the baking stage displayed better moisture barrier properties than that of the coating applied after baking in controlled, semi-controlled, and normal atmospheric environmental conditions. It's responsible for the reduction of moisture absorption of biscuits upon storage</p> Chathuri M. Senanayake, Thiini Nayanakanthi, Paul Siranjiv Copyright (c) 2021 Chathuri M. Senanayake, Thiini Nayanakanthi, Paul Siranjiv Wed, 09 Jun 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Antioxidant Activity and Nutritional Properties of Freshly Tapped Palmyra (Borassus flabellifer) Sap <p>This study aims to analyze the antioxidant activity and the nutritional profile of the freshly tapped palmyra sap. Samples were collected in pre-sterile sample collection bottles from different parts of Jaffna peninsula and immediately transferred into an ice box. Pooled samples were centrifuged (1000rpm, 5 minutes) and the supernatant is stored at the refrigerator (4℃) for nutritional, and antioxidant analysis. The results exhibit that fresh sap consists of Na (15.3±0.14 mg/100g) and K (22.6±0.12 mg/100g), while the total ash content was 0.62±0.45 (g/100g). The total sugar content of the sap was 16.43±0.07(g/100g) and the reducing sugar and non-reducing sugar content were 2.16±0.32 (g/100g), 14.27±0.04 (g/100g) respectively. Sap exhibited a relatively low amount of fat 0.02±0.01 (mg/100g). DPPH scavenging activity with regard to IC 50 value was 1.36±0.35 mg/mL, and the total phenolic content and ascorbic acid content were recorded as 186±12.27(mg GAE/100g), 12.16±0.31 (mg/100g) respectively. It can be concluded that the fresh sap of palmyra is a good source of antioxidant properties and nutritional value.</p> Maathumai Sivaji, B. Aheeshan Copyright (c) 1970 Maathumai Sivaji, Aheeshan Tue, 06 Jul 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Dynamic Optimization Self-adaptive AI Controller for a Four-wheel Independent Drive Electric Rover <p>In this paper, a dynamic optimization self-adaptive controller for a four-wheel independent drive electric rover has been investigated to enhance the dynamic stability. The proposed self-adaptive AI controller is based on dynamic Fuzzy Logic (FL) control mechanism. The dynamic self-adaptive properties have been integrated into the proposed FL controller through a dynamically tuned Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) mechanism. Nevertheless, the dynamic FL controller and the dynamic PSO mechanism has been synchronized together for every sampling instance k to obtain the optimum performance of the electric rover. In this electric rover, all the four wheels have a fixed orientation and each wheel powered by a 250-Watt Brushless Direct Current (BLDC) motor through separate gear ratio mechanisms to obtain the desired torque and angular velocity. Therefore, the steering mechanism was achieved in this rover through the proposed AI controller, which was based on the differential speed mechanism. However, this paper presents the control methodology and obtained test results related to straight road tests under different slippery road conditions. The rover test results show that on different slippery road conditions the proposed PSO based FL controller has maintained the wheel slip ratio of all the four wheels which was less than 0.35 approximately. Here, the translational speed has been limited to 40 km/hr approximately within its recorded top speed of 90 km/hr while maintaining the desired fix orientation.</p> Hasitha Ruwan Jayetileke, W.R. de Mel, H.U.W. Ratnayake Copyright (c) 2021 Hasitha Ruwan Jayetileke, W.R. de Mel, H.U.W. Ratnayake Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530 Review on Carbon Black and Graphite Derivatives-based Natural Rubber Composites <p>Functional materials based on the crystalline allotropes of carbon have garnered tremendous interest from researchers in chemistry, physics, and material science for a long time. This paper reviews studies carried out on carbon black and graphite derivatives, their properties, and manufacturing applications. Graphite derivatives such as graphene, graphene oxide, reduced graphene oxide, expanded graphite, and graphene quantum dots are reviewed, along with a discussion of their synthesis and advantages. Generally, carbon black and graphite derivatives are incorporated into the polymeric material to enhance the performance of the end material. Recently, much attention has turned to the structural and electronic properties of carbon-based polymeric materials. Hence, at present, graphite-based polymeric material is the hottest topic in physics and materials science due to excellent electric and thermal conductivity, optical, mechanical properties, etc. The most common and widely used filler for rubber in the industry is carbon black due to its excellent physico-mechanical properties, thermal stability, oil resistance, etc. Therefore, carbon black and graphite derivatives incorporated composites of natural rubber have been reviewed in detail, along with a discussion of the current limitations and challenges of these exciting materials.</p> Sampath Wickramage Don, C.A.N. Fernando, D.G. Edirisinghe Copyright (c) 2021 Sampath Wickramage Don, C.A.N. Fernando, D.G. Edirisinghe Mon, 31 May 2021 00:00:00 +0530