Innovation Systems in the Twenty-First Century: Toward the Emergence of “Democratic Competitiveness”

M. DEKKICHE

Abstract


Abstract:


The Twenty-First Century has been seeing a dramatic change at almost all levels. This was due to the spread and ramping of globalization fact. However, the main characteristics of the recent era is the growing importance of Information and Technology of Communication (ITC) which invades various aspect of life. Yet, according to Schwab (2015) a new industrial revolution ( a forth one) is to be born in the near future, as the ultimate result of ITC pressure. This is true once we take in consideration that innovation and technology are changing the way supply and demand interact each other to generate new products. In an advanced stage their interaction creates what is known as the Quadruple Helix of innovation, in which not only supply side are called to produce, demand side are vividly welcomed to participate in the conception of new products. As a result competitiveness is said to be democratic as it receive the support of different actors including large portion of population and environment; the same as a president is elected a democratic country.
This paper shows that through the development of the innovation systems, since the nineties, there is a tendency to create competitive advantages, which receive the approval of various actors and lead to the emergence of “Democratic Competitiveness”.
Keywords: Innovation System, Quadruple Helix


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Faculty of Management Studies & Commerce