The use of biomass combustion ash as a reinforcing filler has taken the attention in recent years to reduce the overall production cost and increase the mechanical properties of plastics. This study evaluates the effect of biomass boilers ash (BBA) as a reinforcing filler on polyamide 6 composites (PA6). The chemical composition and thermal stability of BBA were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Differential thermal analysis (DTA) thermographs. Test samples were prepared by varying the ash content (2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, and 10%), and also samples were prepared without adding ash as a control. Moreover, surface modification was carried out by using N-2 (Aminoethyl) 3-aminopropyl triethoxy diamino-silane as a possible coupling agent for BBA and it was tested by varying the coupling agent concentration (0.5%, 1%, and 2%) by dry process and the samples were prepared by extrusion and injection molding processes. Comparative analysis of the degree of crystallinity, mechanical properties including tensile, flexural, and thermal properties were tested. The highest degree of crystallinity was obtained with 7.5% BBA-filled composites. The addition of 2% surface-modified BBA (SBBA) filled composites (PA6 / 10% Ash 2% CA) showed an increase of tensile strength and elongation at break than the 10% unmodified BBA (UBBA) (PA6/ 10% Ash) filled composites. Stress at peak and bending modulus values in the flexural test data were increased up to 10%. But it was significantly reduced with the increasing of modifying agent concentration due to the increment of stiffness of the composite.